Vatican City. According to Countryaah, the capital of Holy See is Vatican City. Pope John Paul II visited Croatia during the year, where he blessed one of the most controversial historical figures of Croatian history, Archbishop Alojzije Stepanić (see Croatia).
In the spring, the commander of the Swiss Guard General Alois Esterman was murdered along with his wife. The perpetrator was a young deputy corporal who committed suicide shortly after the deed.
During the year, the Vatican State appointed a commission to investigate the atrocities committed during the Inquisition. Shortly thereafter, the professor of philosophy of law at the Vatican University, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Luigi Lombardi Vallauri was dismissed in an internal trial where he was not entitled to defend himself. The reason was stated to be that he devoted himself to error lessons. Vallauri had expressed his views on hell, sin and sexual morality. He found no resemblance between the sins a human can commit and an eternal burning hell.
Leonardo Zega, editor of the Italian newspaper Famiglia Christiana, was forced after leaving the Vatican to leave his post because he had not condemned homosexuality.
In October 2002, the pope makes deceased mother Teresa from Calcutta for the weekend. She may have been the most prominent religious figure of the 20th century, but the sanctification was at the same time debated because of her opposition to the use of contraception. Almost at the same time, Pope Opus Dei’s founder, José Escrivá de Balaguer made the weekend. Opus Dei is a highly conservative order within the Catholic Church, and it gained tremendous influence in the 20th century. This weekend performance had strong political overtones.
Despite strong pressure from the Vatican in 2003, the EU Constitutional Consent refused to include a passage in the EU’s new constitution on “EU Christian roots”.
In July, the Vatican launched a worldwide campaign against gay marriage, which it characterized as immoral, not natural and devastating. This was done in an attempt to reverse the progress made in this area in Europe and America.
In October 2003, the greatly weakened 83-year-old pope celebrated his 25th anniversary in the papacy. The number of Catholics continues to rise, despite the Vatican’s reactionary development under Pope Paul II. The Vatican’s opposition to the use of contraception continues to contribute to the spread of AIDS and other STDs.
Pope John Paul II died April 2, 2005. He suffered from advanced Parkinson’s, and his illness was of grave concern to Catholics and especially the Vatican City. On February 24, he had been admitted to the Gemilla Hospital in Rome for the flu. His condition was improving as he suffered a heart and circulatory collapse. Hundreds of thousands gathered in St. Peter’s the following day and several Catholic countries declared mourning.
Most observers outside the Vatican agreed to rate John Paul’s post as highly conservative. He crushed most of the liberation theological currents of the Catholic Church in the Third World, thus reducing the church’s social and political commitment. His strong opposition to contraception also contributed to the spread of AIDS in especially Catholic countries in Africa.