In 1998, Zambia was a country located in Southern Africa that had recently transitioned from a one-party state to a multi-party democracy. Despite this, the country still faced serious economic and political challenges such as high levels of poverty and unemployment, an inefficient public sector, limited access to markets abroad and a fragile government.
The Zambian government at the time had implemented several economic reforms in order to address these issues such as liberalizing trade laws, introducing market-oriented reforms and encouraging foreign investment. Additionally, they had also sought out international aid from countries such as the United Kingdom, Norway and other members of the European Union in order to help improve infrastructure throughout the country. See dentistrymyth for Zambia in the year of 2015.
Despite these efforts, there were still many challenges that needed to be addressed within Zambia in 1998 such as high levels of corruption within its government which was hindering economic progress. Additionally, there were also human rights issues that needed to be addressed due to the lack of freedom of speech and expression within the country. Despite these issues however, there were some signs of progress as foreign investment into Zambia increased during this period which helped create jobs for many citizens living in poverty.
Zambia. According to Countryaah, the capital of Zambia is Lusaka. Former President Kenneth Kaunda, who was arrested in December 1997 accused of participating in a coup attempt, was indicted in January. However, when the trial began in June, the prosecutor dropped the prosecution. Kaunda immediately announced that he would leave the chair of the United National Independence Party, UNIP (Formal National Independence Party), which happened formally a month later. He also hinted that he would leave politics altogether.
It was South Africa’s President Nelson Mandela who, through secret mediation, worked out Kaunda’s release towards ending his political career. But behind the indictment, as was President Frederick Chiluba’s decision in March to repeal the exceptions laws that have prevailed since October 1997, there was even more the country’s need to stay well with foreign aid donors. Zambia was suffering from a huge foreign debt, the repayments of which cost the country three quarters of its aid. Zambia was also hit hard by falling copper prices. A consortium of aid donors under the World Bank’s leadership granted the country $ 530 million in May, but at the same time demanded more rapid privatization of the still partially state-owned copper company ZCCM.
- Abbreviationfinder: What does ZWB stand for in geography? Here, this 3 letter acronym refers to the country of Zambia.
Area: 752,612 km2 (world ranking: 38)
Population density: 23 per km2 (as of 2017, world ranking: 67)
Official languages: English
Gross domestic product: 25.8 billion US $; Real growth: 4.1%
Gross national product (GNP, per resident and year): 1300 US$
Currency: 1 Kwacha (K) = 100 Ngwee
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Head of State and Government: Edgar Lungu Inonge Wina, Outside: Joseph Malanji
National holiday: October 24th.
State and form of government
Constitution of 1991
Presidential republic (in the Commonwealth)
Parliament: National Assembly with 167 members (156 elected, 8 appointed, 3 ex officio), election every 5 years; Also chamber of the chiefs (House of Chiefs) with 27 Member.
Direct election of the head of state every 5 years (renewable once)
Voting age 18 years
last 2010 census: 13,092,666 inhab.
73 ethnic groups (mainly Bantu): 36% Bemba, 18% Nyanja (including Chichewa, Nsenga, Ngoni), 15% Tonga (including Lenje, Soli, Ila), 10% Northwest Group (Luvale, Lunda, Kaonde), 8% Barotse (including Lozi, Nkoya); Chinese, San among others
Cities (with population): (as of 2017) Lusaka 2,426,900 inh., Kitwe 669,600, Ndola 551,900, Chingola 233,600, Kabwe 227,600, Mufulira 177,500, Maramba (Livingstone) 168,000, Luanshya 145,400
Religions: 65% Protestants, 25% Catholics; indigenous religions; Minorities of Muslims, among others (as of 2006)
Languages: English; Languages of the ethnic groups
Employed by economic sector: No information
Unemployment (in% of all economically active persons)
Inflation rate (in%): 2017: 6.6%
Foreign trade: Import: 8.7 billion US $ (2017); Export: US $ 8.1 billion (2017)
Alternating humid tropical climate. The climate is weakened by the altitude. Average temperatures in low areas around 24 ° C, in high areas around 21 ° C. Precipitation decreases from north (1500 mm) to south (600 mm). The rainy season lasts from November to April.
Dictionary of History
Zambia A state in south-central Africa. With no outlets to the sea, it is located for the most part in the basin of the upper and middle Zambezi River, from which it takes its name. Populated in ancient times by Khoisan communities, it saw the immigration of Bantu people. Seat between the 16th and 19th centuries. of organized states, such as the Lunda kingdom of Kazembe, the Lozi kingdoms in the West, Bemba in the Northeast, Chokwe in the East. In the 19th century. it suffered the invasion of the Nguni and the slave trade. Since 1890 the British South Africa company (BSAC) of CJ Rhodes he entered into protectorate agreements with various local leaders, acquiring the area, rich in minerals (copper in the Copperbelt region), establishing the British possession of Northern Rhodesia. In 1924 the BSAC transferred its powers to the British government. The development of the mining industry transformed the country, accelerating urbanization processes. In the 1940s, a union of African miners and a nationalist movement arose. From 1953 to 1963 the possession was united with Southern Rhodesia (od. Zimbabwe) and Nyasaland (od. Malawi) in the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, controlled by the white minority of Southern Rhodesia. Black anti- federative nationalism was dominated by the figure of Kenneth Kaunda, exponent of African socialism e leader of the Northern Rhodesia African national congress (NRC) and then of the United national independence party (UNIP), which in 1962 obtained control over the territory’s legislature. The Federation was dissolved the following year. Winner in the 1964 elections, Kaunda was the first president of the Zambia, independent since 24 October 1964 with problems of regional particularism, especially on the part of the Lozi kingdom. Linked to the transport and production infrastructures of Southern Rhodesia, the Zambia sought alternatively to develop connections with Tanzania (Tan-Zam railway, built with Chinese assistance). The choice for a Zambian way to socialism led in 1972 to the proclamation of a single party and in practice to a form of moderate personal authoritarianism on the part of Kaunda. Zambia actively supported the liberation struggles in Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Angola and the Republic of South Africa, suffering repercussions from the conflicts. Dependence on the copper market, the country’s main product, caused financial difficulties and the austerity measures adopted by Kaunda in the 1980s, based on the recommendations of the International Monetary Fund, caused widespread discontent and unrest, repeatedly inducing the president to derogate. and concessions. In 1990 Kaunda accepted the return to multi-partyism and passed a new pluralistic Constitution (1991), losing the subsequent elections in favor of the opponent F. Chiluba (1991-2001), who liberalized the economy. But the continuing economic instability, the austerity measures, the repercussions of deregulation towards the free market and the spread of AIDS have hit Zambians hard over the last twenty years. Successive presidents (L. Mwanawasa, 2001-08; R. Banda, since 2008) have promoted campaigns against poverty and rampant corruption.