Uganda. Rebel forces continued to haunt the border areas in the north and west. In the north, the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), villages and small towns attacked, and in the west, the United Democratic Forces, the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF), ravaged. In June, some 40 students were killed when the ADF attacked and set fire to a technical boarding school in the Kabarole district. ADF’s raids into Uganda from bases in Congo-Kinshasa have been reported to have driven 60,000 people into flight since 1996.
According to Countryaah, the capital of Uganda is Kampala. Ugandan troops actively participated in the Congo-Kinshasa uprising against President Laurent-Désiré Kabila. Uganda initially claimed that they would only protect the country’s borders against the ADF and other rebels, but in November, Commander-in-Chief James Kazini acknowledged that they had participated in attacks against Congolese government forces.
The image of Uganda as an economically brilliant example for Africa has in recent years been sunk by an increasing corruption. In December, both the president’s own brother and advisers and the privatization minister were forced to step down following a scandal surrounding the privatization of three state-owned large corporations. A parliamentary commission called for the resignation of four more ministers.
The colonial power’s expropriation of land caused great tensions throughout the production apparatus, and these, after the war, were exacerbated by the introduction of export products that displaced traditional food production, and led to a deterioration of living conditions for the majority of the population. The prospect of change seemed distant until the 1960s, when the decolonization movement forced Uganda’s independence. Kabaka Mutesa II of Buganda became the first President of the Republic, while Dr. Milton Obote became the first prime minister
In 1965, Obote succeeded in changing the constitution, gaining greater power and abolishing the federal structure between a number of traditional kingdoms. A structure the British had imposed on the new country. At the same time, he formulated a policy that was more in favor of the poorest sectors, and confronted the Indian people. A minority of 40,000 people who controlled almost all trade in the country. Since the Indians had British passports, they opposed complete integration into the new state.
In foreign policy, Obote strongly supported economic regional integration with Tanzania and Kenya with the aim of reducing Uganda’s economic dependence on Europe. The integration process led to the formation of the East African Common Market.
In January 1971, Obote was overthrown by a bloody coup, led by former sergeant, paratrooper and boxing champion Idi Amin Dada. The country’s economy was in crisis and the government was facing the Indian minority and the multinational corporations. Idi Amin quickly showed his authoritarian side, and in 1972 ordered a mass expulsion of the Indians.
Although he came to power with the support of the elite in business, Amin’s actions in the government were very controversial: while maintaining trade relations with the United States and England, he developed good relations with the socialist world. He supported a number of the liberation movements in Africa, but at the same time he opposed Angola’s accession to the African Unity Organization (OAU), and he constantly harassed the government of the Nigerians in Tanzania. Although he was trained as a paratrooper in Israel, he expropriated lands and property belonging to the Jewish community of Uganda and approached the Arab lands.
Amin declared himself president for life, and in 1978 he waged war with Tanzania by annexing an extensive area in the northern part of this country. The war between the two countries became fatal for Amin, who in April 1979 was forced to flee from Kampala following a joint offensive carried out by Tanzania’s forces and the Ugandan opposition joined by the Ugandan National Liberation Front (UNLF).