In 1998, Tajikistan was a nation located in Central Asia with a population of around 6.5 million people. The official language was Tajik and the currency was the Tajikistani Ruble. The government was an authoritarian regime headed by President Emomalii Rahmon, who had been in office since 1992. Tajikistan’s economy in 1998 relied heavily on agricultural exports, with its main exports being cotton and fruits. Tourism also played an important role; Tajikistan had many historical attractions such as ancient cities and archaeological sites which attracted visitors from all over the world. Education was highly valued in Tajikistan; literacy rates were higher than average for Central Asian countries at around 98%. Despite economic difficulties due to its small size and limited resources, Tajikistan had managed to maintain its unique culture and traditions which provided hope for a brighter future. See dentistrymyth for Tajikistan in the year of 2015.
Tajikistan. In February, President Imomali Rachmonov appointed five members of the opposition to ministers, and in March, the united opposition was appointed UTO’s second leader Chadzji Akhbar Turadzjonzoda as first deputy prime minister. It was in line with the 1997 peace treaty, which had ended five years of civil war. But despite the agreement, there were repeated fighting between government forces and armed groups during the year that refused to obey the UTO leadership. Many sacrifices were required.
According to Countryaah, the capital of Tajikistan is Dushanbe. Three UN observers and two of their co-workers were killed in July in a raid in Tajikistan. As a result, the UNMOT observer force temporarily removed all “unnecessary” foreign personnel from the country.
A prominent opposition leader, Ottachon Latifi, was assassinated in September in the capital, Dusjanbe. President Rachmonov decided that the investigation of the crime should be led by a joint government and opposition commission. In November, a military uprising broke out in northwestern Tajikistan. In a week of fierce fighting between rebels and the army, over a hundred government soldiers were killed and several hundred people wounded. The rebels were led by an ethnic Uzbek, and President Rachmonov accused Uzbekistan of participating in the coup attempt. Prisoners from the rebel forces are said to have received military training in Uzbekistan. Uzbek President Islam Karimov dismissed all charges.
- Abbreviationfinder: What does TJK stand for in geography? Here, this 3 letter acronym refers to the country of Tajikistan.
A ban on opposition parties, including the Islamic parties, were finally repealed in November after fierce domestic political strife. The ban was introduced during the civil war and its cancellation was an important element of the 1997 peace agreement. Tajikistan thus became the only country in Central Asia where religious parties, such as the Islamic Revival Party, can operate legally.
During the year, several death sentences were issued, including for assassination attempts on the president and for taking hostages.
History. – The change in the political situation in the USSR, with the coming to power of M. Gorbačëv, also initiated a rapid transformation process in Tajikistan which led to the dismissal in 1985 of R. Nabiyev, secretary of the Communist Party since 1982, to the recognition of a, albeit limited, freedom of expression, an attitude of tolerance towards the formation of opposition political parties and the emergence of a renewed interest in the cultural traditions of the Tajik people, long repressed by the Soviet control over the government. The relative liberalization stages were: in 1989 the recognition of the Tajik language as a state language with the reintroduction of its teaching in Arabic characters (this spelling had been banned by the Soviet power),
The opposition forces – the main ones being the Democratic Party of the Tajikistan (PDT), the Rastohez (Rebirth) movement, the Islamic Revival Party (PRI) – had very limited freedom of action. Power remained de facto in the hands of the men of the old regime, and the attempt to declare the Communist Party illegal brought Nabiyev back to the top of the state, who finally agreed to call multi-party presidential elections.
The elections of November 1991, won by Nabiyev, did not slow down the centrifugal forces of the various ethnic groups, and the situation of social disorder resulted in a real civil war, which continued even after the establishment of a government including ministers indicated by the forces of opposition. The conflict took on more and more religious and ethnic characteristics, as well as territorial, with the industrial and northern regions in favor of President Nabiyev, and with the southern and eastern ones, towards the borders with Afghānistān, in favor of the democratic and Islamic opposition. Armed pro or anti-government groups were formed; among the most active, in the northern region of Kuljab, a militia of irregular people (Tajik People’s Front), led by S. Safarov, a commander with a criminal record for various crimes, including smuggling, and with 23 years in prison behind him, who was responsible for various sensational actions including the murder of members of the PDT and the Pamiri community movement. The precarious balance reached in the government could not support this further aggravation of the political situation, and a riot that broke out in the capital led first to Nabiyev’s flight and then to his capture on 7 September. The new president and a riot in the capital led first to Nabiyev’s flight and then to his capture on 7 September. The new president and a riot in the capital led first to Nabiyev’s flight and then to his capture on 7 September. The new president ad interim, A. Iskandarov, secretary of the Supreme Soviet, and the fragile government, established under the leadership of A. Abdullojonov, while enjoying the support of all parties, failed to extend their jurisdiction outside the capital, while the rest the country remained largely controlled by various armed groups and in particular by Safarov’s militias. On November 10, 1992, the government admitted its inability to stop the civil war and resigned along with that of President Iskandrov; the Supreme Soviet, at least in theory the only legitimate institution left, even if the expression of elections to which the main opposition parties had not been admitted, met in Hodžand, a city in the north of the country, he set up a new government from which all representatives of Islamic and democratic parties were excluded, abolished the office of president to replace it with that of secretary of the Supreme Soviet and appointed I. Rahmanov to the latter position. The new government regained possession of the capital in December 1992 with a death toll of hundreds and in March 1993 declared that it now had complete control of the territory, despite an initial attempt by Islamic forces to establish an Islamic republic in the eastern Garm valley.