In 1998, Somalia was a horn of Africa nation located in the eastern part of the continent with a population of around 10 million people. The official language was Somali and the currency was the Somali shilling. The government was a presidential republic headed by President Mohamed Siad Barre, who had been in office since 1969. Somalia’s economy in 1998 relied heavily on agriculture, with its main exports being bananas, sorghum, and hides. Tourism also played an important role; Somalia had many natural attractions such as deserts, mountains, and beaches which attracted visitors from all over Africa. Education was highly valued in Somalia; literacy rates were higher than average for African countries at around 50%. Despite economic difficulties due to its small size and limited resources, Somalia had managed to maintain its unique culture and traditions which provided hope for a brighter future. See dentistrymyth for Somalia in the year of 2015.
Somalia. According to Countryaah, the capital of Somalia is Mogadishu. The peace initiative that was taken at a Cairo meeting in December 1997 ran out of sand because of the split between the clans. Instead, the struggle for control over individual parts of the country was accentuated. Clan leaders in northeastern Somalia in July proclaimed the autonomous region of Puntland, which was given its own parliament, government and constitution. However, Puntland did not intend to break out of Somalia. In the south, militia leader Muhammad Said Hersi Morgan announced plans for Jubaland, also within Somalia, with the center around the port city of Kismayu, and in central Somalia there were plans to establish Central Somali states.
The five militia who control each part of the capital Mogadishu made several attempts to create a joint administration, but they could not even agree to open the port and the airport.
The continuing insecurity prompted the International Red Cross Committee in September to remove foreign personnel from Somalia. The fighting helped to aggravate the state of supply after a cereal harvest that was the worst in five years.
In November 2013, there was a political conflict between the president and the prime minister. The prime minister thought he could transform his government himself. The president didn’t think so. After a month of parliamentary paralysis, Prime Minister Shirdon lost a vote in parliament in December and resigned. The president then appointed Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed as new prime minister.
In September 2014, Human Rights Watch released a report documenting rape and sexual assault committed by AMISOM soldiers during the 2013-14 period against women in Mogadishu. The AU subsequently announced that it would investigate the charges.
- Abbreviationfinder: What does SOM stand for in geography? Here, this 3 letter acronym refers to the country of Somalia.
A North American drone attack in September 2014 killed al-Shabaab leader Moktar Ali Zubeyr. The government then offered all moderate leaders in the rebel group amnesty within 45 days.
The same month, the government passed a new media law authorizing the National Media Council to issue fines of US $ 5-10,000 to journalists for “falsification” or “baseless propaganda”. The provisions were broad enough to function completely arbitrarily. During the year, the state intelligence agency NISA had repeatedly arrested journalists and subjected them to torture or derogatory treatment, or had carried out raids against newspapers and radio stations.
From October to December, the country was marked by a new bitter power struggle between the Prime Minister and the President. It began when the Prime Minister made a government transformation in late October. The president objected to the transformation, which he then canceled, citing that he had not been involved. Over the next month and a half, a host of external players, with the United States, the United Nations and the Arab League at the forefront, tried to get the two top politicians to settle the dispute. Several times Parliament tried to conduct a vote of confidence, each time ending in chaos. On December 6, Parliament voted Ahmed out.
In December 2014, Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke was appointed prime minister by the president as a replacement for the ousted prime minister. President Mohamud motivated his choice of Sharmarke with his good relations with the United States, where he had briefly been Somali’s ambassador. Sharmarke subsequently had serious problems putting together a government that could be approved by Parliament.
The EU-Somalia Partnership Forum met in November 2014 in Copenhagen for negotiations. Prior to that, Amnesty International had called on the EU to place greater emphasis on respect for human rights in Somalia.
In February 2015, President Mohamud conducted a three-day conference in Mogadishu with Presidents Abdiweli Mohamed Ali, Ahmed Mohamed Islam and Sharif Hassan Sheikh Adan from Puntland, Jubaland and South West State respectively. The purpose was to promote national reconciliation and new meetings took place in April and May in Garowe. The four presidents signed a 7-point agreement, the most important element of which was the incorporation of 3000 Puntland soldiers into the country’s army. The other regions also agreed to integrate soldiers into the army.