Rwanda. According to Countryaah, the capital of Rwanda is Kigali. Northwestern Rwanda was plagued all year by hutumilis’ assassinations against civilian Tutsis and the Tutsidomined army’s counter-offensive. Every month there were reports of massacres. The worst offenses include an attack on a hotel outside the capital Kigali on July 12, when at least 34 people were killed while watching the World Cup finals in football. More than 100 people, mostly women and children, were killed to the north of the capital on the night of August 1st.
During the fall, the army carried out a major offensive against the Hutu people. The fighting drove more than 600,000 civilians from their villages on the hills to collection camps, where protection was better but the livelihoods were small and the sanitary conditions poor.
The previously unknown Rwanda Liberation Army (ALIR) and its political branch An armed people for Rwanda’s liberation (PALIR) emerged in June as a new language for the extreme Hut nationalists. The organization has emerged from the former Rwandan army and the militia Interahamwe, which was behind the 1994 assassination. Congo.
- Abbreviationfinder: What does RWA stand for in geography? Here, this 3 letter acronym refers to the country of Rwanda.
At the UN War Criminal Tribunal in Arusha, Tanzania, former Prime Minister Jean Kambanda and former Mayor Jean-Paul Akayesu were sentenced to life imprisonment for genocide and crimes against humanity. Kambanda had pleaded guilty, but still did not escape the most severe punishment of the tribunal. In April, the first executions were carried out after the genocide. 22 people convicted in Rwandan courts for participation in the massacres were publicly arched, despite appeals from abroad that the sentence should be converted to prison. The executions in a short time got 5,000 prisoners in Rwandan prisons to also admit their guilt in the genocide in hopes of more lenient treatment.
History. – In the territory of trust entrusted by the UN to Belgium (which united the Rwanda to Urundi) the situation at the beginning of the 1960s appeared confused and tense, due to the contrast between the two ethnic groups: the Tutsi aristocrats and the rural Hutu who in the autumn of 1959 had violently rebelled against the traditional supremacy of the former. In October 1960 – on the now defined path of independence, favored by the Belgian government – a provisional government was established (six Rwandan Hutu and two Belgians) chaired by G. Kayibanda; in January 1961, on the initiative of the Hutu leaders, who now held power, the Republic was proclaimed (ratified in September by a referendum, held by the will of the UN).
Thousands of Tutsis fled to neighboring countries, starting a terrorist activity in Rwanda. On 1 July 1962 independence was proclaimed according to the decisions of the UN, to which the Rwanda was admitted on 18 September. The main problem of the independent Rwanda was the defense from attempts at monarchical restoration and from the actions of Tutsi emigrants (in December 1963 a ferocious reaction against terrorism was unleashed, with the massacre of thousands of people belonging to the Tutsi ethnic group); thanks to the prestige of President Kayibanda, confirmed in the elections of October 1965 (since that year the Mouvement démocratique républicain, or Parmehutu, holds all the seats in the National Assembly) and in September 1969, a certain national pacification took place, even if in the positions of responsibility (apart from the Church and the university, founded in Butare in 1963) the Hutus clearly prevailed. As for foreign policy, Mr Rwanda entered the cooperation organizations of the French-speaking African countries and established relations rather with the states of the West; in January 1964 he broke the economic union with Burundi, while in 1966 he signed a series of cooperation agreements with Zaire (which the following year agreed on preferential relations with the Rwanda and Burundi).
A growing tension between the group holding the power (originally from the central region of Gitarama) and the other Hutu ethnic groups, particularly those of the North, led to a military coup on July 5, 1973, led by gen. J. Habyalimana, who headed a Committee for National Peace and Unity. The new regime, Parmehutu dissolved and the National Assembly strengthened the powers of the central administration, abandoned the previous economic nationalism and accentuated the pacification process between Hutu and Tutsi. The whole political-administrative structure of the Rwanda belongs to the National Revolutionary Movement for Development (MRND), founded in July 1975. The Rwanda then extended international relations and collaboration agreements with neighboring countries (Tanzania, Burundi, Zaire; with the last two he established in April 1976 the Economic Community of the Countries of the Great Lakes, CEPGL), with European (Belgium, France, Italy, visited by Habyalimana in 1976), Arab and Asian states.