Peru. The criticism of breach of legal principles and human rights directed at President Alberto Fujimori since he came to power in 1990 concentrated on two themes during the year: his possible re-election in 2000 and the head of the military intelligence service, Vladimiro Montesinos. According to Countryaah, the capital of Peru is Lima. The Supreme Court’s decision on February 10 that Fujimori’s candidacy is legal was, according to the opposition, a result of the president’s power over the judiciary and something that undermines the legal community. Montesinos was accused by anonymous leavers of imperial power and illegal telephone interception by Fujimori’s political opponents. As a gesture to the opposition, a new Prime Minister, Javier Valle Riestra, one of Fujimori’s opponents, was appointed in June. However, he resigned shortly thereafter and was replaced by former Prime Minister Alberto Pandolfi Arbulu.
During the year, a peace agreement was reached with Ecuador on the jungle area that the two countries fought in 1995. The conflict, which has caused eight wars since independence, is based largely on Ecuador’s demand for access to the Amazon River system, which is believed to be stipulated in the so-called Rio Protocol of 1942. However, this would mean Peruvian land withdrawals, which Peru completely rejected. In October, after many rounds, an agreement was signed that largely gave Peru the right, but which also meant some concessions to Ecuador, among other things. sailed freely on Peruvian waterways to the Amazon River.
1989 Fujimori President
- Abbreviationfinder: What does PER stand for in geography? Here, this 3 letter acronym refers to the country of Peru.
Up until the 1989 elections, three political sectors were active in the legal political scene: Former Trotskyist, author and now rabid rightist, Mario Vargas Llosa had led the oligarchy crusade against Alan Garcia’s “socialism” and formed FREDEMO (Frente Democrático, the Democratic Front). The left wing that had been united in the early 1980’s was now divided – between the “united” led by Henry Pease and the “socialist” led by Lima’s former mayor Alfonso Barrantes. Finally, a few months before the election, unknown agronomist Alberto Fujimori had entered the political scene and had formed Cambio 90. The voters were apparently tired of the traditional political parties on both the right and left. Fujimori was elected with 56.4% of the vote.
Fujimori was deployed in July 1990 and immediately implemented a very tight anti-inflationary plan to curb the country’s towering inflation. This “fuji shock” worsened the living conditions of most Peruvians, throwing half the population into extreme poverty. The country’s 4 trade unions organized “marches against hunger”. In parliament, Fujimori did not have a majority, and instead he began to govern through decrees. On April 5, 92, he conducted a coup d’etat and dissolved parliament with the allegation that it was ineffective, corrupt and hindered the country’s reconstruction. The United States immediately interrupted its financial and military assistance to the country, but soon began new negotiations. In late April, the IMF approved the government’s economic and structural reform program.
In September, the military succeeded in capturing Abimael Guzmán – founder and leader of Sendero Luminoso. It was a severe blow to the guerrilla that was further split when Guzmán declared himself ready to enter into peace talks with the government. But the guerrillas had been heavily squeezed before then. Despite the (thin) democratic facade, the military was the real ruler in most of Peru’s provinces. There was a military state of emergency, the military forced the peasants into rondas campesinas (so-called self-defense groups), which were used both for self-defense against Sendero’s assaults and for attacks on the civilian population in the areas where the guerrillas had influence. Meanwhile, the military made its own systematic violations of human rights.
The terror had already in the late 1980’s forced Sendero to revise its original Maoist strategy of concentrating the struggle in rural areas to surround and crush the cities. The guerrillas tried to recruit students and people – especially rural refugees – into urban slums. In the process, the organization clashed with traditional left-wing organizations and did not refrain from executing left-wing leaders when they did not move to Sendero’s side.
In the November 92 elections, Fujimori succeeded in obtaining his own party majority in the Constitutional Assembly, but the election was also boycotted in protest of the traditional parties.
In early 1995, Peru and Ecuador waged an unexplained war along their common border in the Condor Mountains. The war was partly about control over an area of oil reserves and partly to secure the ailing popularity of both presidents. Peace negotiations were subsequently conducted with Argentina, Brazil, Chile and the United States as guarantors.
At the April presidential election, Fujimori won over his counterpart, former UN Secretary-General Javier Pérez de Cuéllar. That same year, the president granted amnesty to all military and police officials convicted since 1980 for human rights violations in the fight against the guerrillas. Meanwhile, the “neglected” judges continued their work. In 1992-95, 2000 people were convicted by judges who were behind a screen to prevent identification.
In December 96, a commando group from the MRTA occupied the Japanese ambassador’s residence in Lima while hosting a major reception. 450 guests were taken hostage and released little by little. The guerrilla demands were the release of imprisoned comrades, but the action failed. On April 22, 97 – 126 days after the start of the action – the Peruvian military stormed the embassy and liquidated the 14 partisans. One hostage out of the remaining 72 was killed and two police officers. Fujimori received support for the action from 65% of the population in subsequent polls.
Peru’s constitution prohibits re-election of the president for a third term, but in 96 Fujimori took the preliminary steps to clear this obstacle of the road. In May 97, he removed those members of the Constitutional Court who had declared in December that the Constitution banned the re-election of him.
Amnesty International condemned that in the previous 5 years, 5,000 Peruvians had been arrested and jailed under anti-terrorist law. Of these, 1400 had been unfairly imprisoned, and by the end of 97 600 political prisoners were still imprisoned.