In 1998, Paraguay was a developing nation with a population of 5.3 million people. The majority of the population lived in rural areas and agriculture was the main source of income. The economy was largely dependent on the export of commodities such as soybeans, maize, cotton and timber. Despite this, poverty was still widespread and life expectancy at birth was just 64 years old. Education levels were low and health care services were inadequate in many parts of the country. In terms of infrastructure, roads were poor and telecommunications services were limited to urban areas only. Despite these challenges, Paraguay had made some progress in recent years by introducing reforms to improve economic growth and reduce poverty levels. This included reforms to the banking sector and foreign investment laws as well as steps to increase access to primary health care services for all citizens. See dentistrymyth for Paraguay in the year of 2015.
Paraguay. This year’s political events in Paraguay revolved around retired General Lino Oviedo, who was the leader of a failed military uprising in April 1996 and who is now running for May 10 presidential election. Before that, however, he had been sentenced to 10 years in prison for his role in the uprising, and his candidacy was annulled. His party, Partido Colorado (ANR-PC), then nominated in his place vice presidential candidate Raúl Cubas, who won the election with 54% of the vote before opposition alliance Alianza Democráticas (AD) candidate Domingo Laíno.
In practice, Partido Colorado, the country’s traditional holders of power, is divided into at least three factions that act as individual, competing parties but join forces in electoral movements to guarantee the party’s continued power holdings. According to Countryaah, the capital of Paraguay is Asuncion. Former President Juan Carlos Wasmosy’s faction (Acción Democrática Republicana, ADR) and party leader Luís María Argaña’s faction (Movimiento de Reconciliación Colorado, MRC) oppose Cubas and Oviedo (Unión Nacional de Colorados Éticos, UNACE). Among other things, they threaten with national law against Cubas after he dissolved the military tribunal that sentenced Oviedo and for giving him amnesty.
Important issues ahead of 1999 are continued privatization, budget cuts and a reform of the banking system, which in September was in acute crisis for the fifth time in three years.
- Abbreviationfinder: What does PRY stand for in geography? Here, this 3 letter acronym refers to the country of Paraguay.
Subtropical climate. Tropical in the north, otherwise subtropical with a rainy season between October and May. The Paraguayan spring (Oct. – Nov.) is considered to be the most pleasant season, as November in particular shows itself in all of its exotic splendor and abundance of flowers. The summer and holiday season fall from December to March. Despite the predominantly beautiful (often hot) weather, this part of the year also includes the rainy season with sometimes heavy showers. Precipitation increases from the west (600mm) to the east (2000mm). In the Gran Chaco, the summer temperatures reached values of over 40 ° C.
The Asociación Nacional Republicana (ANR, commonly known as Partido Colorado ), which since 1948 ruled the Paraguay with the support of the armed forces and the agrarians, continued to remain in the early 21st century. the main protagonist of the country’s political life, still characterized, moreover, by strong instability. The widespread corruption that pervaded the state apparatus, reaching its highest representatives, the cyclical cracking of the fragile relationship between civilian and military institutions and the delays in the implementation of the agrarian reform, severely opposed by large landowners.
The national coalition government formed in 1999, following a profound institutional crisis that had pitted President R. Cubas-Grau against Congress, and led by Partido Colorado senator L. Gonzáles Macchi, seemed to offer the possibility of starting a season of profound reforms, but the expectations that the population had placed on it were soon disappointed. The exit from the coalition (February 2000) of the centrist Partido Liberal Radical Auténtico (PLRA), but above all the inability to resolve the structural knots of the agrarian question through a redistribution of land, weakened the executive, crushed in the following years by the weight of numerous scandals and by a very serious economic and social crisis. In May 2001, the president of the central bank, accused of corruption, was forced to resign; President Gonzáles Macchi himself was also involved in the investigation (April 2002). In a climate of growing uncertainty and social malaise, the bloodiest aspects of a state apparatus subjected to the military for years and still little used to democratic practices returned to manifest themselves: in January 2002, two members of the extreme left party Movimiento Patria Libre (MPL) reported that they had been illegally detained for 13 days and tortured by the police, with the approval of the government authorities, as part of an investigation into a kidnapping case. The strong outcry caused by the news led to the resignation of the police chief, the interior minister and the restructuring of the entire secret service apparatus. The measures taken, however, did not succeed in reviving the fortunes of the executive, whose popularity was constantly decreasing.
Strikes and protests, organized by poor peasants but also by urban middle classes, heavily penalized by the privatization policy initiated by Gonzáles Macchi and disappointed by the lack of moralization of the public sphere, followed one another in 2002. In an attempt to ease the tension, the president decided (April 2002) to postpone the privatization of the state telecommunications industry, but the protests continued and in July, after violent riots broke out in the capital, a state of emergency was proclaimed.
Despite the protests, in the presidential elections held in April 2003 the candidate of the Partido colorado won again ON Duarte Frutos, favored by the lack of agreement of the opposition parties which, after months of negotiations, had presented themselves once again divided at the electoral appointment. The new president placed the fight against corruption, the improvement of public finances, tax reform and the revitalization of the economy among the priority objectives of his mandate, calling on numerous experts to join the government. The reform of the judicial system was also promoted which involved, among other things, the renewal of the members of the Supreme Court and the initiation of proceedings against numerous judges and public officials involved in corruption cases. The new address met with the favor of international organizations and in December 2003 the International Monetary Fund (IMF) decided to grant financial aid to the country to facilitate the implementation of economic reforms (new funding was allocated in June 2006).
To cope with the resumption of peasant unrest, riacutizzatesi since 2003, in September 2004 the government signed an agreement which provided for the distribution of about 13 thousand hectares of uncultivated land to the poor peasants, however, it is satisfying only a small part of the demands from the latter, which were around 100 thousand hectares. Land occupations and protests, led by the Federación Nacional Campesina de Paraguay , continued in this way throughout 2005.despite the strengthening of the repressive measures implemented by the executive to prevent them. Also in recent years, there were also disagreements within the same governing party on the fiscal policy promoted by the president, which included, among other things, a tightening of the rates relating to agricultural income aimed at improving public finances and allowing greater interventions in service and infrastructure sectors. This resulted in numerous executive reshuffles.