Panama. In January, the last US troops left the Querry Heights military center under the 1977 agreement governing the US presence and the Panama Canal surrender to Panama on December 31, 1999. Panama-US negotiations to make the old US air base Howard the center for the fight against drugs were later added down without agreement. Instead, the country’s entrepreneurs suggested that the base be converted into a distribution center for goods.
In a referendum in August, the Panamans voted against a constitutional amendment that would have given President Ernesto Pérez Balladares the right to re-run for president in the 1999 elections. Congress had previously approved the constitutional amendment.
According to Countryaah, the capital of Panama is Panama City. The United States Supreme Court rejected an appeal from Panama’s former leader, General Manuel Noriega, who is jailed in Florida. The court upheld the previous sentence of 40 years in prison for drug smuggling and bribery.
Panama was hit in October by Hurricane Mitch’s progress but not to the extent of neighboring countries in the north.
- Abbreviationfinder: What does PAN stand for in geography? Here, this 3 letter acronym refers to the country of Panama.
Area: 75,320 km2 (world rank: 116)
Population density: 54 per km2 (as of 2017, world rank: 129)
Capital: Panamá (Panama)
Official languages: Spanish
Gross domestic product: 61.8 billion US $; Real growth: 5.4%
Gross national product (GNP, per resident and year): 13,100 US$
Currency: 1 Balboa (B /.) = 100 Centésimos (legal tender: US$)
Wichmannstr. 6, 10787 Berlin
Telephone 030 22605811,
Fax 030 22605812 www.botschaft-panama.de
Head of State and Government: Juan Carlos Varela RodríguezIsabel Saint Malo de Alvarado
National holiday: 3.11.
10 provinces and 3 comarcas (autonomous indigenous territories)
State and form of government
Constitution of 1972
Parliament: Legislative assembly (Asamblea Legislativa) with 71 members, election every 5 years
Direct election of the head of state. every 5 years (no immediate re-election)
compulsory voting from 18 years of age
Population: Panamanians, last census 2010: 3,405,813 residents
approx. 32% European-indigenous, 27% European-African, 14% Afro-indigenous, 10% European, 8th % indigenous (Guaymi / Ngöbe-Buglé, Kuna, Emberá, etc.), 5% African, 4% Asian
Cities (with population): (As of 2010) Panamá 430,299 residents (A 0.9 million), San Miguelito 315,019, Las Cumbres 127,440, La Chorrera 118,521, Tocumen 113,174, Pacora 103,960
Religions: 86% Catholics, 10% Protestants; Muslims, Jews (as of 2006)
Languages: 87% Spanish; indigenous languages (including Guaymi, Chibcha); English
Employees by economic sector: agriculture. 15%, industry 18%, business 67% (2017)
Unemployment (in% of all labor force): 2017: 4.5%
Inflation rate (in%): 2017: 0.9%
Foreign trade: import: 20.3 billion US$ (2017); Export: 11.5 billion US $ (2017)
The question of the Canal was raised again at the UN Security Council, meeting in Panama City from 15 to 21 March 1973. The Fr, with the support of Latin American countries and many Afro-Asiatics, asked for a fair and more in keeping with the new times. A resolution to that effect, presented to the Security Council by eight non-aligned countries, was blocked by the USA, which exercised its right of veto. In the end, a compromise was reached with the approval of a resolution which invited the two parties to conclude a new treaty without delay, responding to the legitimate aspirations of the Fr and capable of guaranteeing “full respect for his effective sovereignty”. General Torrijos tried to intensify his relations with the countries of Latin America and for this purpose (January 1974) made official trips to Venezuela, Argentina and Peru; in order to demonstrate the economic progress made by Panama under his leadership, he proclaimed 1975 “the year of productivity”. However, the Canal question remained unsolved: despite Kissinger’s long negotiations and personal efforts, the agreement was not reached. A statement from the Panama dated 21 September 1975 announced that negotiations with the USA regarding the Canal Zone had been suspended. The document listed the controversial points: while the parties agreed to a pact lasting 25 years, the USA claimed 50 years to ensure the defense of the Zone and asked for 14 military bases against the three offered by the Panama; full disagreement also on the rental price. Subsequently, under Carter’s presidency, a treaty was signed in Washington (7 September 1977) which ensures the passage of the Canal Zone to Panamanian sovereignty on 31 December 1999 (the instruments of ratification were signed by J. Carter and O. Torrijos in the following June). On 11 October 1978 the National Assembly elected the new President of the Republic, Aristide Royo, who also assumed the post of head of government, while in Torrijos the command of the National Guard was maintained.