In 1998, Niger was a landlocked country located in West Africa. It had a population of around 10 million people and its capital city was Niamey. The economy of Niger in 1998 was largely based on agriculture with its main exports including livestock, millet, peanuts, and onions whilst imports included machinery and transport equipment. In terms of infrastructure, Niger had a limited transportation network with well-maintained roads and airports as well as access to international shipping routes. Education levels were low with most children attending school until at least age 16. Health care was also poor with limited access to public health services available to most people. Despite its small size, Niger is renowned for its diverse landscapes ranging from mountains to deserts as well as its vibrant cities such as Agadez which are filled with art galleries, museums and parks. See dentistrymyth for Niger in the year of 2015.
Niger. Former Prime Minister Hama Amadou and two other leading opposition politicians were arrested in January accused of planning to assassinate President Ibrahim Baré Mainassara. They were released on bail but threatened with prosecution.
According to Countryaah, the capital of Niger is Niamey. Demonstrations against the president in April led to violence that was defeated by security forces. In both February and May, soldiers revolted against missing wages. The financially hard-pressed state was in May six months after paying salaries to the government employees, but managed to pay the soldiers and thus restore calm.
The 1995 ongoing process of making peace with separatist guerrillas among the Tuareg and Toubou people was completed in 1997. The last of 15 rebel movements laid down weapons in exchange for amnesty and pledged to be included in the army.
In August, the political opposition also quenched its conflict with the military-dominated government after promising, among other things. fair access to the state media and a review of the electoral laws.
In October 1997, Ali Sabo – coordinator of the “Front of Reconstruction and Defense of Democracy” activities, which included eight opposition parties – was jailed for hostile statements against Mainassara. In November 1997, Ibrahim Hassane was appointed prime minister instead of Cissé. A month later, a ceasefire agreement was concluded in Algeria between the government and the Tuareg guerrillas.
- Abbreviationfinder: What does NER stand for in geography? Here, this 3 letter acronym refers to the country of Niger.
In early 1998, Mainassara ordered the detention of several people from the opposition, including Amadou, under allegations of conspiracy. The unity party “The National Movement for the Developing Society” rejected the allegations and described them as a maneuver to divert the domestic and foreign public from the government’s inability to solve crucial issues such as hunger, falling wages and security. Throughout the year there were constant demonstrations against the government by students, soldiers and civil servants. In some districts, the Supreme Court canceled the outcome of the March 1999 election and ruled out new elections. After a tense week in which the opposition called on Mainassara to step down, the Presidential Guard assassinated him on April 4, and the coup’s leader, Daouda Malam Wanke, was appointed President and Chief of the National Council for Reconciliation to govern the country for a transitional period of 9 months. The National Assembly, dominated by members of the Bares party, was dissolved by Prime Minister Ibrahim Assane Mayaki, and all political parties were temporarily dissolved.
The international community put great pressure on the country to bring it back to democratic states. In October, the first round of elections was held, and the second round of elections in November was won by former officer Tandja Mamadou of MSND. He won very clearly over former Prime Minister and Spokesman for Parliament, Issoufou Mahamadou. Mamadou was inaugurated as President on January 1, 2000.
Mamadou’s government faced many problems. One of these was the unbridled hunt for endangered animal species, including giraffes, hippos and lions. This hunt is widespread in the northern arid areas of the country. In February 2001, Environment Minister Issoufou Assoumane declared that over the past 10 years, a massacre of animals in the country had taken place, that the government would intervene in the hunt and restrict the issue of hunting permits. Another practice that Parliament banned the following year was female circumcision practiced by some ethnic groups. According to 1999 studies, 20% of the country’s women are circumcised.
Despite the agreements with the Tuaregans, the violence continued. In July and August 2003, a series of armed clashes ensued over the control of the secret trade in oil and petroleum products in the Niger Delta. The fighting cost 50-100 lives.
HUMAN AND ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY
At the 1988 census the population of Niger amounted to 7. 249. 596 residents; in 1998 international organizations estimated it at 10,078,000 units. The population growth of the Niger continues at a sustained pace, completely incompatible with the prospects of strengthening the productive structures of the country: in the interval 1990 – 98 the average annual rate of demographic growth was 39 ‰, a value substantially unchanged compared to the previous decade. Although there has been a certain containment of births, the birth rate is still attested to values higher than50 ‰; the mortality rate, on the other hand, is around 19%. Life expectancy at birth is always very low, which in 1997 was calculated at 45 years for males and 50 for females. It is estimated that over 60 % of the population lives below the poverty line and that the illiteracy rate exceeds 85 %. The level of urbanization is modest (the urban population is 20 %). The most populous cities – besides the capital, Niamey, with about 400,000 residents – I am Zinder (about 150. 000 residents) And Maradi (120. 000).