Myanmar History Part II

Myanmar History 2

After the restoration of British rule, the only Burmese delegation led by Aung San achieved independence in lengthy negotiations (January 1947 Aung San-Attlee Agreement, October 1947 Nu-Attlee Agreement). Due to his high personal integrity, Aung San was able to get the political leaders of the Shan , Kachin , Chin and Kayah to agree to a common state (Panglong Agreement, February 12, 1947). The AFPFL proved to be the strongest political force in the elections for the constituent assembly, whose leadership passed to Nu after the assassination of Aung San (July 19, 1947).

State independence

With the entry into force of the constitution on January 4, 1948, the country became independent as Pyidaungsu Myanmar Nain-ngan (English Union of Burma, German Union of Burma) and at the same time left the Commonwealth of Nations.

From the beginning Prime Minister Nu (1947 / 48–56, 1957/58, 1960–62) was confronted with resistance, from 1947/48 with uprisings by communist and others. left organizations and from 1949 with the uprising of the Karen , who as an ethnic minority disagreed with their position in the state; they were joined by Mon , Pa-O and others. on. In the west, Muslims fought for an Islamic state. The army under the command of General Ne Win was weakened by massive desertion, so that only a few areas were controlled by the government (“Rangoon Government”). The Guomindang made the situation even more complicated – Forces retreating from the communists from China in 1949, invading northern and eastern Shan states ; Most of them were flown to Taiwan in 1954 under international control. The deployment of government troops in the Shan state was perceived as a violation of autonomy and contributed to the development of the conflict with the central government that broke out openly from the late 1950s.

In the course of restoring government authority, Nu initiated a reform program in which he sought to combine Buddhist concepts and socialist ideas (“Buddhist socialism”): with land reform and the nationalization of large Western companies. As a result of the severe destruction in the Second World War, in the civil war and due to the reduced demand for rice on the world market, there was an economic crisis; the social situation, especially of the peasants, remained marked by hardship.

Tensions within the AFPFL, which remained the strongest political force in the general elections but was subject to an increasing process of disintegration, triggered political crises in 1956 and 1958 and Nu resigned as head of government. For the sake of stabilization, power was handed over to the military in 1958. This so-called military “Caretaker Government” made General Ne Win Prime Minister and temporarily returned power to the Union Party von Nu (renewed part of the AFPFL) in 1960 after its election victory. As head of government , Nuhis reforms continued, but with the elevation of Buddhism to the state religion (1961) triggered strong tensions, especially in relation to the minorities. The Christian-dominated Kachin Independence Organization (KIO) entered the civil war.

Foreign policy

In terms of foreign policy, according to recipesinthebox, Burma has always followed a neutral course since its independence in 1948; It joined the UN in 1948, provided U Thant as its general secretary in 1961 / 62–71 and was a founding member of the movement for non-aligned states.

During the “socialism” period (1962–88), Burma cut itself off from abroad with “strict neutrality”. Relations with the People’s Republic of China, which Burma was one of the first states to recognize in 1949, were tense for a long time because of Chinese support for insurgent groups in the country, but improved again in the 1990s. After the military suppression of the unrest in 1988, the USA, the EC (now the EU) and Australia in particular tried to induce the SLORC to resign by suspending development cooperation and applying diplomatic pressure. In 1994 the EU switched to a more open »critical dialogue«, combined with sanctions or their threats. The member states of the Southeast Asian regional organization ASEAN insisted on a flexible “constructive engagement” with Burma. In 1994, Burma was the first guest at an ASEAN foreign ministerial meeting, of which it became a member in July 1997. The reform course, which accelerated from 2011 onwards, improved the country’s foreign policy reputation. Relations with China were considerably expanded. In 2018, the EU decided to reinstate the extensive sanctions that it had lifted in 2013 due to the displacement of the Rohingya. The US did not go along with it.

Myanmar History 2