In 1998, Moldova was an independent nation located in Eastern Europe with a population of around 4.3 million people. The economy was largely based on agriculture, with some industry and services also contributing significantly. The government was a stable democracy with strong emphasis on civil rights and freedoms. In terms of infrastructure, Moldova had access to roads, railways and airports as well as telecommunications networks. Health care was fairly good in most parts of the country, though access to basic medical services was still limited in some rural areas. Education levels were quite high compared to other countries in the region due to significant investments made into public education as well as private universities. Additionally, its unique cultural heritage and abundance of natural resources made it a hotspot for international tourism in the late 1990s. All in all, Moldova’s potential for growth and development were evident despite its many challenges in 1998 thanks to its strong economic foundation and governmental stability. See dentistrymyth for Moldova in the year of 2015.
Moldova. In the March parliamentary elections, the Moldovan Communist Party (PCM) became the largest party with 40 of Parliament’s 104 seats. The former largest group, from the Agrarian Democratic Party, disappeared from the legislative assembly. Despite the success, PCM was put out of government formation. Prime Minister Ion Ciubuc formed a new right-wing government with the rest of Parliament as a basis: Ciubuc’s own Moldova Democratic Convention (CDM), 26 seats, Movement for a Democratic and Prosperous Moldova (PMPD), 24 seats, and the Democratic Forces (PFD) Party, 11 mandate.
According to Countryaah, the capital of Moldova is Chisinau. The new government cuts public spending. food tax on food and decided to increase the pace of privatization. As a result, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in June resumed a three-year loan program to Moldova, which was suspended in 1997.
- Abbreviationfinder: What does MDA stand for in geography? Here, this 3 letter acronym refers to the country of Moldova.
In July, deliveries of gas from Russia to Moldova were cut down to half as the country did not pay its bills. This led, among other things, to to the M. and the breakaway region of the Dniester Republic agreed to jointly rebuild the country’s largest power plant. Russia is an important trading partner for M. and the Russian ruble crisis led to a dramatic fall in prices for the Moldovan currency, leu, in early September. After using almost half of the country’s foreign exchange reserves to support the purchase of leu in early November, the central bank gave up attempts to save the currency. It then fell by a third of its value. Prime Minister Ciubuc presented an additional budget with new tough austerity measures. The Communist Party demanded a national rescue government and an end to free market reforms. The party requested a declaration of no confidence in the government in Parliament,
In November, Romania began supplying electricity to Moldova to try to resolve the country’s deep crisis in the middle of an unusually severe winter. Ukraine had then canceled most of its electricity supplies to Moldova due to non-payment.
Referendum and new elections in 2010
Another strategy for getting elected president was to change the constitution so that the president is elected directly by the people, not by parliament. The parliamentary majority therefore called for a referendum to amend the constitution in this direction. The Communists boycotted the referendum. Although the electoral law was changed so that the participation requirements were reduced from 60 to 33 percent for the result to be valid, the attendance was not large enough. Only 30.3 percent participated. 87.8 percent voted to change the Constitution, 12.2 percent voted against.
With such low participation, the result was of no significance other than to demonstrate the strength of the communists. Thus, new elections were once again printed. This parliamentary election took place on November 28, 2010. The threshold was now reduced from five to four percent (higher for electoral unions). The turnout was 63.4 per cent, higher than in both parliamentary elections in 2009. International election observers were largely satisfied with the election. In this election, the Communist Party was also the largest with 39.3 percent of the vote. Nevertheless, there was a decline from the previous elections. The mandate went down from 48 (July 2009) to 42.
By April 2009, the communists had received 60 seats. Largest on the non-communist side, the Liberal Democratic Party was led by Prime Minister Vlad Filat with 29.4 percent of the vote and 32 seats. The Democratic Party and the Liberal Party received 12.7 and 10.0 percent of the votes respectively (15 and 12 seats). Even though the non-communist parties overall were larger than the communists, this time they also did not get the sufficient constitutional majority to elect a new president. It seemed for a while that the Marian Lupus party (the Democratic Party) would form a coalition with the Communists, but neither would it give a large enough majority.
After difficult negotiations, in December 2010, the non-communist coalition between the Liberal Democrats, Democrats and Liberals resurrected, the “Alliance for European Integration”. Marian Lupu was elected President of Parliament. Thus, he also became acting president of the country, pending a valid presidential election.
Vlad Filat of the Liberal Democrats continued as prime minister. In 2011, too, Parliament failed to elect the country’s president, as the communists with their 42 seats could still block the election. When three of the communist deputies (including former prime minister Zinaida Greceanîi) left the Communist Party in November 2011 and joined the Socialist Party (Partidul Socialiştilor din Republica Moldova), a small party that was then without representatives in parliament, the Communists lost their opportunity to prevent the election by a non-communist president.
However, a solution to the protracted constitutional crisis did not come until March 2012, when the non-communist government coalition failed to propose one of the alliance’s party leaders as new president, but instead rallied to a Supreme Court judge without party affiliation, Nicolae Timofti, who was also chair of the Judicial Administration Council. The communists boycotted the election, which took place on March 16, 2012. Timofti got 62 votes, and thus he was elected with the necessary three-fifths majority. He thus became the first regularly elected President of Moldova after Vladimir Voronin’s ordinary term in April 2009.
In the winter of 2013, the government coalition led by Vlad Filat showed clear signs of dissolution. There was no decisive disagreement over the Western-friendly reform policy that the government had followed, but increasing controversy over positions and accusations of abuse of power and corruption. The Communist Party, which constituted the main part of the opposition, used this to submit a motion of no confidence to the government in March 2013. When one of the ruling parties, the Democratic Party led by Marian Lupu, also voted for the proposal, it was passed in Parliament on March 5, 2013.
It was uncertain for a long time that a new government could be created in parliament, or whether new elections had to be printed. On May 30, 2013, we succeeded in establishing a new government coalition with almost the same composition as the previous one, but now called the “Coalition for a pro-European government”. Iurie Leancă of the Liberal Democratic Party became new prime minister. He had been Foreign Minister in the previous government and had been leading a business ministry since the fall of the government.
The 2014 parliamentary elections
Following the signing of an Association and Free Trade Agreement with the EU in June 2014, amid strong protests from Russian-friendly political forces in Moldova, the November 2014 parliamentary elections became largely a settlement of Eastern or Western ties for Moldova. The tense situation between Russia and Ukraine also came into play, as did the Russian boycott of important Moldovan export goods. At this election, the threshold was raised to six percent.
The election gave victory to the EU-friendly parties: the Liberal Democratic Party (20.2 percent of the vote, 23 seats), the Democratic Party (15.8 percent, 19 seats) and the Liberal Party (9.7 percent, 13). mandates) secured a majority in the new parliament. However, the party that got the most votes was the Socialist Party led by Igor Dodon (20.5 percent, 25 seats). He, along with former Prime Minister Zinaida Greceanîi, had left the Communist Party in 2011.
Dodon wanted the agreement with the EU to be terminated and Moldova instead to join the Customs Union between Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. Compared to previous elections, the Communist Party, led by Vladimir Voronin, who had traditionally been the largest party, more than halved its voting share (17.5 percent in 2014 compared to 39.3 percent in 2010). The turnout was 55.9 percent, significantly lower than in 2010 (63.4 percent). International observers were largely satisfied with the conduct of the election, although the report of the OSCE delegations, the Council of Europe and the European Parliament also pointed to some conditions that could be improved.
Although all parties have a fight against corruption on the program, the time after the EU-friendly parties gained a majority in 2009 has also been characterized by corruption and other economic crime.
The biggest case involved “the lost billion”. Three large banks became involved in a coordinated withdrawal of funds through loans with poor collateral. The money – close to $ 1 billion – disappeared in November 2014 through a chain of fast and transparent transactions with companies registered in other countries or tax havens. The central bank took on the losses to save the banks and thus transferred the burden to the country’s population.