Malaysia became independent in 1957 after a long struggle against British rule. The independence movement was led by Tunku Abdul Rahman, who is considered the father of Malaysian independence. He and his group of supporters, called the Alliance Party, fought for autonomy from British rule and eventual independence. They were successful in gaining support from the people and began negotiations with Britain to secure independence. The negotiations resulted in an agreement that declared Malaysia independent on August 31, 1957. This agreement also granted Malaysia its own constitution and a new flag.
The newly formed government of independent Malaysia was headed by Tunku Abdul Rahman as its Prime Minister, with a multi-party system of governance. He was responsible for initiating social reforms such as free education, health care and providing economic opportunities to Malaysians. His policies helped create a strong sense of national identity among all citizens and brought about significant economic development to the country. After his death in 1990, he was honored as the Father of Independence for his role in bringing freedom to Malaysia from British rule. Today, Malaysian citizens continue to celebrate their independence every August 31st with great joy and pride for having achieved freedom after so many years of struggle against colonialism.
Political Systems in Malaysia
According to thesciencetutor, Malaysia is a parliamentary democracy with a unique system of government. The country is ruled by the Prime Minister, who is appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King), who is the head of state. The Prime Minister is elected from among the members of parliament. The parliament consists of two houses: the House of Representatives, which has 222 members elected for five-year terms, and the Senate, which has 70 members appointed by the king. The Prime Minister appoints a cabinet to assist him in governing.
The Malaysian government practices a form of policy known as consensus politics, which seeks to promote unity among all citizens regardless of ethnicity or religion. This has allowed Malaysia to remain relatively stable since independence in 1957 and has promoted economic growth and development. Malaysia also has an independent judiciary that ensures that laws are followed and enforced fairly and consistently. It also promotes freedom of speech, assembly and association within its borders. Malaysia also maintains an active foreign policy with other regional countries, as well as with major international powers such as China, Japan, India and the United States.
Judiciary System in Malaysia
According to topb2bwebsites, the judiciary system in Malaysia is based on a dual court system, which consists of the civil courts and the Syariah Courts. The civil courts are divided into two levels: the subordinate courts and the superior courts. The Subordinate Courts are the first level of court and they have jurisdiction over all civil and criminal matters. They are presided over by Magistrates or Sessions Court Judges. The Superior Courts are divided into three categories: the High Court, the Court of Appeal, and the Federal Court. The High Court has jurisdiction over all criminal matters as well as civil matters that involve more than RM25,000 in value. The Court of Appeal is the appellate court for both criminal and civil matters decided by subordinate courts while the Federal Court is the highest court in Malaysia and it hears appeals from decisions of both subordinate courts and High Courts.
The Syariah Courts were established in 1984 to administer Islamic law in Malaysia with jurisdiction over cases involving Muslims only such as marriage, divorce, inheritance, custody issues etc. These courts operate under state-level enactments known as State Enactments for Islamic Law or Syariah Criminal Offences Enactment (Federal Territories). There are three levels of Syariah Courts: Syariah Lower Courts (Kelas Rendah Mahkamah Syariah), Syariah High Courts (Mahkamah Tinggi Syariah) and Federal Territory Shariah Judiciary Department (Jabatan Kehakiman Syarie Wilayah Persekutuan). The decisions made by these courts may be appealed to higher level syariah court or to a civilian court depending on which type of law was applied during trial.
Social Conditions in Malaysia
Malaysia is a multi-ethnic, multi-cultural and multi-religious country. The population consists of Malays, Chinese, Indians and other ethnic groups. The majority of the population is Muslim, followed by Buddhists and Christians.
The government of Malaysia has been successful in promoting racial harmony between the different ethnic groups. This has been achieved through education, legislation and cultural activities. Education encourages people to understand and respect each other’s cultural beliefs and practices. Legislation ensures that everyone is treated fairly regardless of their race or religion. Cultural activities such as festivals, art exhibitions and cultural events help to bring people together from different backgrounds.
In addition to this, the government has also implemented various social welfare policies to ensure that all citizens have access to basic necessities such as healthcare, education and housing. The government also runs several programs aimed at providing economic assistance to those in need such as the Bantuan Rakyat 1Malaysia (BR1M) program which provides cash assistance to low-income households in Malaysia. Other initiatives include subsidies for essential goods such as cooking oil, sugar and flour; public housing projects; free medical care for senior citizens; free education for children from low-income families; free meals for school children from poor families; grants for small businesses; as well as financial aid for single mothers.