Libya. The year was marked by discussions about the plans for a lawsuit against two Libyans suspected to be behind the explosion of a US passenger plane over the Scottish village of Lockerbie in 1988, when 270 people were killed. In August, the United States and Britain proposed that the trial be held on neutral ground in the Netherlands under Scottish law. Libyan leader Muammar al-Khadaffi first announced his acceptance of the proposal, but soon demands were made, among other things. that the suspects, if convicted, should not be served their sentences in British prison but in Dutch or Libyan.
In December, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan traveled to Libya to try to resolve the conflict, and later that month, Libya’s parliament approved the US and UK proposals. However, when the suspects were extradited remained unclear, and the United States and the United Kingdom warned that sanctions against the country could be tightened unless they were both extradited by February 1999.
According to Countryaah, the capital of Libya is Tripoli. Many judges said al-Khadaffi was worried that prosecutors would try to use the trial to convict the state of Libya for the attack. The suspects are two Libyan Arab Airways employees who, according to the United States and the United Kingdom, worked as intelligence agents. Since being arrested in Libya in 1991, they have been in freedom but without a passport. They are suspended from work but have full pay.
The flight ban imposed on Libya in 1992 after the country refused to extradite the two suspects was eroded during the year. In June, the African Unity Organization (Organization of African Unity) decided to no longer respect the ban, and in September a number of African heads of state flew to the country to celebrate the anniversary of al-Khadaffi’s takeover. The Arab League, on the other hand, did nothing to defy the sanctions, which upset al-Khadaffi.
In September, a trial began in which a number of US military and politicians in their absence were held responsible for the attacks against Libya in 1986. The trial was updated in March 1999.
In May, the EU signed an agreement with Libya to limit the flow of refugees from Africa through Libya to Europe. A similar agreement under Gaddafi had meant that not many refugees came through Libya. However, the agreement with Libya did not have a greater impact on the massive refugee flow. Libya only had a few patrol boats, and inland the various militia groups were most concerned with fighting each other. The humanitarian refugee disaster in the Mediterranean therefore continued throughout 2013 and 14.
- Abbreviationfinder: What does LBY stand for in geography? Here, this 3 letter acronym refers to the country of Libya.
At the beginning of June, clashes broke out in Benghazi between protesters, the army and militias. At least 31 were killed and over 100 injured – most civilians. A week later, hundreds of armed militiamen stormed several military facilities in the city – including on the 1st Infantry Brigade and a few days later a huge explosion leveled the police station in Al-Hadayeq district with the ground.
In October, Defense Minister Ali Zeidan was kidnapped and held captive for hours in what was subsequently referred to as a coup attempt. The month after, the Misrata militia attacked Tripoli, after an imam called for the dissolution of all militias. At least 45 were killed during the first day of fighting. In Benghazi, fierce fighting came between the elite forces of the army and the Ansar al-Sharia militia, which had several bases in the city.
The Islamic-controlled National Congress introduced Sharia law in Libya in December.
2014 Civil war in a clan-divided country
In January 2014, Libyans attacked several targets in southern Libya after Gaddafi loyalists stormed and occupied the Tamahind airbase near the city of Sabha. The government then put the country into emergency.
The conflict in the country escalated dramatically when the parliament building in May was stormed and taken by militia loyal to General Khalifa Haftar – including the Zintan Brigade. Haftar’s forces had attacked Islamic militias in Benghazi a few days before. Under the chaotic conditions, in June, an attempt was made to hold a parliamentary election, which allegedly became an obvious defeat for the various Islamic parties. These reacted in July by launching an offensive against Tripoli Airport, which was taken in August after 41 days of fighting. That same month, Islamic parliamentarians who had not been elected to the new parliament rallied and declared this aloof. In November, the Supreme Court, which was under the control of the Islamists, dissolved the newly elected parliament. The newly elected parliament had then gone into exile in Tobruk in the eastern part of the country near the border with Egypt.
Algeria closed its borders with Libya and evacuated its embassy staff in Tripoli. French special forces evacuated the French embassy in July, and the British were evacuated in early August.
In November, a Tuareg militia took control of the El Sharara oil field in the southwestern part of the country. In December, the Misrata militia launched an offensive to gain control of Ras Lanuf and the Sidra oil terminal on the Mediterranean. During the fighting, both sides of the conflict carried out air strikes.
In January 2015, a ceasefire was entered into between the Islamic militias and militias under Khalifa Haftar’s control. They agreed to form a unifying government and conduct new political negotiations. The country was then almost cut off from the outside world. Tripoli airport was destroyed after the fighting and as the last airline, Turkish Airlines canceled its flight to Banghazi in early January. For Turkey, there was a huge loss of prestige, as the country had played a prominent role in overturning Gaddafi in 2011. The Danish bombers had long since been sent on to create a similar chaos in Syria.