In 1998, Kazakhstan was a sovereign Central Asian country located in the heart of Eurasia with a population of around 16 million people. The capital city was Astana and the official language of the country was Kazakh. The predominant religion in Kazakhstan was Islam. See dentistrymyth for Kazakhstan in the year of 2015.
The economy of Kazakhstan in 1998 had experienced a period of rapid growth due to increased investment in its energy sector as well as rising exports to other parts of the world. This economic growth helped to reduce poverty levels throughout the country and improve living standards for many of its citizens.
The political situation in 1998 had become increasingly stable due to efforts by both sides to reach an agreement on issues such as taxation and foreign investment regulations as well as increased investment into infrastructure projects such as roads, railways, airports, and telecommunications networks connecting different parts of the country together. Additionally, there were efforts being made to attract foreign investment into key sectors such as mining, agriculture, manufacturing, and technology services. Overall, Kazakhstan’s economy continued to grow steadily throughout 1998 while its citizens experienced greater social progress due to increased investment in education initiatives as well as improved access to healthcare services.
Kazakhstan. Winter became difficult in Kazakhstan with food shortages and with no wages for miners and other government employees. Strikes, hunger strikes and demonstrations succeeded.
According to Countryaah, the capital of Kazakhstan is Astana. Although Kazakhstan and the UN agreed in February on a joint Commission on Human Rights, the political opposition was subjected to a series of abuses during the year. Fund Ismajlov, leader of the Labor Movement Committee, was arrested for forming a new opposition organization, the People’s Front Movement. He was sentenced in April to one year in prison on charges of obscuring the president. One of Azamat’s civilian leaders, Peter Svojk, had been beaten before the New Year in neighboring Kyrgyzstan in what was suspected to be an act by the Kazakh secret police. In October he was arrested in Alma-Ata. to create national conflict.
The ongoing privatization of the oil and gas industry was discontinued at the beginning of the year. In April, the government decided to adopt a program to upgrade the nuclear industry to an international standard by 2030 and at the same time make the country self-sufficient in energy. This means the construction of a number of new reactors, including outside the old capital Alma-Ata and to the north at Akmola, which in June was formally inaugurated as the country’s new capital. In July, the presidents of Kazakhstan and Russia signed an agreement on how the maritime base in the northern part of the oil and gas-rich Caspian Sea should be shared between the two countries. The two presidents also declared an alliance between the countries, including means mutual military assistance in the event of third party attacks.
- Abbreviationfinder: What does KAZ stand for in geography? Here, this 3 letter acronym refers to the country of Kazakhstan.
Kazakhstan and China signed a border agreement in July to end the long border dispute between the countries, a dispute that 30 years ago caused wars between China and the then Soviet Union. Kazakhstan and China will now prepare a 15-year economic cooperation program and discuss proposals for a gas pipeline from Kazakhstan to China. An oil pipeline is already planned.
In September, Kazakhstan signed several oil and gas agreements with American and Japanese companies. But the Kazakh economy was adversely affected during the year by falling oil and metal prices and by the financial crisis in Russia, which has about a third of trade. Strong budget cuts became necessary.
In November, the country’s election commission decided that President Nazarbayev’s main opponent, opposition leader Akezjan Kazjageldin, was not allowed to register as a candidate for the January 1999 presidential election. for this reason Kazakhstan was invited by the European Security and Cooperation Organization OSCE to postpone the election.
Architecture. – The huge natural resources and investments in infrastructure and industry in the last ten years have elevated the Kazakhstan to an economically advanced Eurasian nation. Like the growing ex-Soviet republics, there are strong imbalances between the wealth of investments in the two main urban agglomerations (Almaty and Astana) and, elsewhere, a widespread state of structural backwardness. If on the one hand the presence, still quite widespread, of nomadic communities must be considered a value in continuity with tradition, on the other it should be emphasized the high number of Kazakhs who live in slums or in old collective farms (kolkhoz), a legacy of the clan structure of society and of Soviet domination.
In Kazakhstan one of the first acts of the declared independence (1991) was the transfer of the capital from Almaty to Astana (1998). This shift led to the rapid growth of the latter – transformed in a few years into an unusual architectural laboratory financed with the revenues of the oil sector – and an attenuation of the aspirations of Almaty, to which was added a general contraction in investments in the rest of the country. If Astana represents a completely singular case (for which reference is made to the specific item), the presence in Almaty of significant architectural interventions should however be noted, including: the new international airport of Sultan Baymagambetov (2004); an underground center (2012) for commerce and leisure, by the Bazis studio, in the historic square of the city; Esentai Park, 2012).
In the immense territory of Kazakhstan, largely occupied by the steppe and the desert, there are, however, medium-sized inhabited centers equipped with modern infrastructures, in which quality architecture has been created. Among these stand out: two Renaissance Hotels, by the BOD studio, in Aktau (2005) and Atyrau (2006), the third largest mosque of the Kazakhstan, in Oskemen (2012), and the sports center of Antis-Studio in Taraz (Taraz Arena, 2013).