Ghana. After decades of more or less open hostility, in May Ghana and Togo promised to observe good neighbors. The friendship agreement was entered into when Togo President Gnassingbe Eyadema for the first time visited Ghana. According to Countryaah, the capital of Ghana is Accra. Misstron between the two countries has existed since British Togoland was incorporated into G. at independence in 1957 and then leader Kwame Nkrumah claimed the entire Togo. Both countries have accused each other of supporting the other country’s resistance groups.
In April-May 2005, thousands of Togo-Ghanaian residents fled the political violence in their own country.
In April 2006, the country’s former first lady, Rawling’s wife, Nana Konadu Agyemang, testified in court of fraud. privatization of a state enterprise in the 1990s.
The relationship between Ghana and Gambia was very tense in July 2007 as a result of Gambia’s failure to cooperate in clarifying how more than 40 Ghanaian emigrants in Gambia could be killed. Also in July, the country’s National Bank carried out a money exchange where 4 zeros were removed from the banknotes, so a new Cedi equaled 10,000 of the old ones.
John Atta Mills was elected president in 2008 with 50.23% of the vote against the incumbent president 49.77%. Mills had been vice president of Jerry Rawlings in the ’90s, but had lost the 2000 and -04 presidential elections. The change of power was the second in the country’s history, and despite the close vote count, it went untrammeled.
In January 2010, Mills established a commission to revise the 1992 Constitution. During the year, it received 60,000 proposals.
- Abbreviationfinder: What does GHA stand for in geography? Here, this 3 letter acronym refers to the country of Ghana.
In 2010, unrest erupted in the northern part of the country in the Bunkpurugu/Yunyoo area. At least 5 were killed, 300 houses were burned down and thousands fled. Many fled across the border to Togo. In May, riots erupted in Bawku in the eastern part of the country. 5 were killed.
Economic conditions. – With a GDP of $ 390 per capita (1990), Ghana is still a very poor country. The decline of gold and diamond resources was accompanied by the crisis in the production of cocoa, of which Ghana was the world’s largest producer until 1978. The serious political instability which caused it has not allowed an effective control of the cocoa. economy, whose situation remains critical, despite the association with the EEC with the Lomè treaty and the entry into the ECOWAS with the Lagos treaty (1975).
Agriculture workers still represent 52% of the active population (1986), but only 4.8% of the area is cultivated with arable land and another 7.2% with permanent woody crops, while 14.2% is destined for to meadows and pastures, and 34.4% to forests.
Alongside cassava, millet and sorghum, more and more corn (5.5 million q in 1990) and rice (810,000 q) contribute to food needs. However, the self-consumption cooperatives did not give the expected results, due to insufficient technical and financial assistance.
The monoculture of cocoa entered a crisis during the 1970s due to the aging of the plantations, with a consequent fall in unit yields, in conjunction with the decrease in the price on the world market and the increasingly fierce competition from the Ivory Coast and the Brazil. Thus it was that Ghana strongly reduced its production (from 4.5 million q in 1972 to 2.4 million in 1990) and was forced to face a policy of crop diversification, which focused on minor coffee crops, of oil and coconut palm and on new crops, such as tobacco, pineapple, citrus fruits (especially lemons) and tomatoes. Forestry uses continued at a very high level (17.2 million m 3of precious woods in 1989, against 9.8 in 1974), despite the fact that the damage caused by deforestation is beginning to become evident. In the arid northern belt, sheep and goat farming has made progress, while cattle farming has remained stationary, as has fishing, despite the purchase of modern fishing boats.
The mining sector always records gold extraction in first place (16,562 kg in 1990), while that of diamonds is nearing exhaustion. Great hopes are placed in the Tarkwa gold fields, which are proving to be superior to those in South Africa. Manganese (364,000 t in 1990) depends on the ups and downs of the world market, while bauxites are processed by the Tema plant. So far, offshore oil exploration has yielded modest results .
Manufacturing industries can rely on the substantial hydroelectric resources made available by the Volta River Project (4.7 billion kWh in 1988), which also fuel exports to neighboring countries. However, the state tends to control foreign companies with majority shareholdings. In addition to the oil refinery and the aluminum factory, textile and cement industries and an iron scrap foundry have sprung up in Tema (20 km from Accra). Stationary is the tourist movement.
In the trade balance, cocoa still accounts for three-fifths of exports, followed by gold (18%), manganese and timber. The main commercial partners are the United States and the United Kingdom, but significant exchanges are initiated with Nigeria. The total debt in 1989 was around $ 3,100 million.
Although some progress in road construction has to be reported, the internal communications network remains insufficient. The port facilities of Tema (for imports) and Takoradi (for the shipment of timber and minerals), on the other hand, are good, which dispose of the huge foreign trade.