Geography of Merrimack County, New Hampshire

Merrimack County, located in central New Hampshire, is characterized by its diverse geography, which includes rolling hills, rivers, lakes, and a mix of urban and rural landscapes. The county’s climate, water features, landforms, and historical sites contribute to its unique identity. Understanding the geography of Merrimack County involves exploring these elements that shape the region.


Topography and Landforms: According to Ehealthfacts, Merrimack County features a varied topography, with rolling hills, valleys, and plateaus. The county is part of the larger Merrimack River watershed, which influences its hydrology and landforms. The landscape is defined by the Merrimack River and its tributaries, creating scenic river valleys.

The western part of the county is more mountainous, including portions of the Sunapee-Kearsarge region. Mount Kearsarge is a notable peak in this area, offering panoramic views of the surrounding landscapes.


Merrimack County experiences a humid continental climate with distinct seasons. The climate is characterized by cold winters, warm summers, and moderate precipitation. The proximity to the Atlantic Ocean influences the climate, providing some moderation in temperature.

Winter temperatures can drop below freezing, with occasional snowfall, while summer temperatures can reach into the 80s Fahrenheit. The climate supports a diverse range of vegetation and contributes to the county’s recreational opportunities throughout the year.

Rivers and Waterways: The Merrimack River, one of the major rivers in New England, flows through the county from north to south, serving as a central feature of its geography. The river and its tributaries, such as the Contoocook River, contribute to the county’s hydrology and create fertile river valleys.

The Merrimack River plays a historical and economic role, serving as a transportation route during the industrial era and supporting various water-based activities. The Contoocook River adds to the scenic beauty of the region.

Lakes and Reservoirs: Merrimack County is home to several lakes and reservoirs, providing recreational opportunities and contributing to the county’s natural beauty. Lake Sunapee, situated in the western part of the county, is a prominent freshwater lake surrounded by hills and forests.

Other notable water bodies include Pleasant Lake, Turkey Pond, and Clough State Park Reservoir. These lakes and reservoirs offer opportunities for boating, fishing, and water sports, enhancing the county’s appeal for outdoor enthusiasts.

Flora and Fauna:

Merrimack County’s ecosystems support a diverse range of flora and fauna. The forests consist of a mix of hardwoods and conifers, providing habitat for various wildlife species. White-tailed deer, moose, foxes, and a variety of bird species inhabit the county’s woodlands and open spaces.

Conservation efforts, including state parks and protected areas, contribute to the preservation of natural habitats and wildlife diversity.


Agriculture plays a role in Merrimack County, with fertile river valleys and open spaces suitable for farming. Local farms cultivate a variety of crops, including fruits, vegetables, and hay. The agricultural landscape contributes to the county’s rural character and provides residents with access to fresh, locally grown produce.

Livestock farming, including cattle and sheep, is also part of the agricultural heritage of Merrimack County.

Urban Centers:

Concord, the capital city of New Hampshire, is located in Merrimack County and serves as its largest urban center. Concord is situated along the Merrimack River and features a mix of historic architecture, cultural institutions, and recreational amenities. The city’s downtown area is known for its vibrant community, local businesses, and the State House, which is the seat of New Hampshire’s government.

Other towns and cities in Merrimack County, such as Bow, Hopkinton, and Pembroke, contribute to the county’s economic and cultural diversity. These urban centers provide essential services, educational institutions, and a sense of community.

Outdoor Recreation:

Merrimack County offers a range of outdoor recreational opportunities, taking advantage of its natural landscapes. The Kearsarge-Lake Sunapee region provides hiking and skiing trails, attracting outdoor enthusiasts year-round. Clough State Park, situated around Everett Lake, offers camping, hiking, and water-based activities.

The Merrimack River provides opportunities for kayaking, canoeing, and fishing. Conservation areas, including Bear Brook State Park, showcase the county’s commitment to preserving natural spaces for recreational use.

Cultural and Historical Sites:

Merrimack County has a rich cultural and historical heritage, reflected in its landmarks and historical sites. Canterbury Shaker Village, a well-preserved Shaker community, provides insights into the region’s history and the communal lifestyle of the Shakers.

The Pierce Manse, the former home of President Franklin Pierce, is another historical site in Concord. Historic districts, museums, and colonial-era architecture contribute to the county’s cultural identity.

Transportation and Connectivity:

Merrimack County is well-connected by a network of highways, including Interstate 93 and Interstate 89, which intersect in Concord. These roadways facilitate travel within the county and connect it to neighboring regions. The transportation infrastructure supports economic activities, tourism, and the movement of goods and services.

Concord Municipal Airport provides local air transportation services, while residents also have access to larger airports in nearby cities.


Merrimack County, New Hampshire, with its scenic landscapes, waterways, and historical richness, stands as a region shaped by its natural resources and cultural heritage. The Merrimack River, Lake Sunapee, and the Kearsarge-Lake Sunapee region contribute to the county’s identity, offering a mix of outdoor recreation, agricultural heritage, and historical charm. As residents and visitors explore the landscapes, engage in outdoor pursuits, and learn about the county’s history, they become part of the dynamic tapestry that defines the unique geography and heritage of Merrimack County.