France Language Part II

France Language 2

In consonantism it is necessary to distinguish the treatment of consonants at the final, at the initial or within the word, and among the internal ones it is still necessary to distinguish the supported consonants (which can be syllable initials, such as the t of fes – ta, or internal of syllable, like r in cre – dopa – trem), intervocalic consonants (like b in faba), final syllable consonants (like r in par – tems in fes – ta).

The consonants which were at the final in the Latin age, or which came to be such in the Romance age following the fall of a vowel, usually fell, but at very different ages. The Latin final m had already fallen in front of an initial vowel since the classical age, and this treatment was generalized in vulgar Latin, except in some monosyllables (such as rem, fr. Rien) in which it persisted for a long time. The final s was still heard at the end of a sentence in the 10th century. XVI; today it is extinct. However, some final consonants have survived, both following a ligament (liaison) with the following word (bon ami [pron. Bonamí ]), both due to the reaction of the spelling on the pronunciation (eg lis “lilies”), and for other causes. The final lrhave mostly been maintained (mare – mer ; but see the infinites in – er pronounced é); the primary or secondary v exists in the form of f (bovem – bteufcapu [ t ] – chef).

According to HYPERRESTAURANT, the initial word consonants and the backed internal consonants are as a rule preserved: thus the two t of testam – tête, the l of lunam-lune, the l of florem – fleur. The velar stops (cg) were maintained when they were followed by a consonant or by ou (crin da crinemc œur da cor). Before andi, in ancient times they had already undergone an indentation that had changed them into ćǵ: subsequently cent comes to be pronounced zent and then gentem first ǵ ent and then ž ã. Before ac and g are palatalized at a later age: the outcome of ca – is different from that of ce -, ci -: caballum gives cheval (pron. Before ć eval and then is val), while the outcome of ga – is analogous to that of ge -, gi (Jambe pron. ǵ amb ə and then ž ãb). The treatment of ca characterizes literary French not only against other neo-Latin languages, but also against several dialects of northern France.

Of the intervocalic consonants, only the liquid and the nasal ones have remained: poire da piravoile da velaaime da amatlaine da lana. The others, by assimilation with the nearby vowels, tended to become voiced if they were deaf, fricatives if they were occlusive, and often also to get lost. Thus the deaf – s – became voiced (chose da causa); the – p – has become – b – and the – b -, primary or secondary, has become – v – (rive da ripafève da faba), the – v -, primary or secondary, subsists (vive da vivalouve da lupa) if it is not absorbed in contact with ou (oncle from a [ v ] unc ŭ lum); – t – is passed to – d -, and – d -, primary or secondary, has fallen (routes through vida, from life ; nue from naked); – c – before aou becomes – g -, e – g -, primary or secondary, falls before or after ou (sûr, through sëur, * seguru, from securumaoût from augustumjouer through * jogare, from iocarerue da ruga), while preceded by aei and followed by a, became j, combining with the preceding vowel (baie * baga baca); – c – e – g – in front of andthe, already palatal from ancient times, have, according to the conditions, varied success (oiseau from aucellumplaisir by placere ; fléau fr. Ant. Flaiel from flagellum).

As for the internal non-intervocalic consonants, the syllable initials are treated as the initials of a word (cf. the first and second t of têtehead). Of the syllable endings only r subsists, while the others fall or are altered in different periods (avenir da ad – COMEsaid through * deb – ta da deb ĭ tatête da tes – tarompre [ rõpr ] da rump ĕ reaube [ ó ] from alba). The c and g palatalize in j, and this joins the previous vowel or palatalizes the following consonant (agneau da agnellumfait da factumais da axem). The j, whatever its origin, has usually palatalized the contiguous consonants, which then have had different fates: the ñ has resisted (vigne da vinea), – cj -, – tj – have assibilated (provence da provinciaforce da fortia), la – j – di – rj – e – sj – bypassed the – r – and the – s -, and combined with the preceding vowel (cuir da coriumbaher da basiare) , the ł has been reduced to j (fille once pronounced fil ə [cf. ital. daughter ] and now fij); finally the labials pbv have fallen in front of j become it or ž (ache from apiastem from the tibiasauge by Sage), while the m has nasalized the preceding vowel before falling (singe [ s æ ž ] from simium).

These various developments have reduced the French to a consonant system rather poor: none affricate, unvoiced stops ptk, Sheet bdg, spirants deaf fsis, sound vž, sounding mnñlr, semivowels jww ??? (the latter is a ü consonant unknown to almost all Indo-European languages: huit [ w ??? it ]).

France Language 2