Eritrea was a small East African nation in 1998, located on the Red Sea. It had a total area of 117,600 square kilometers and a population of around 3.4 million people. The population was largely composed of Tigrinya, Tigre, Kunama and Saho ethnic groups, with minority groups also present. Tigrinya was the official language, though Arabic and English were also spoken. The predominant religion in Eritrea was Christianity, with most people belonging to either the Roman Catholic or Protestant denominations. See dentistrymyth for Eritrea in the year of 2015.
The economy of Eritrea in 1998 was largely dependent on agriculture and industry, with coffee being an important export crop while manufacturing activities provided employment opportunities for many citizens. Education levels were relatively low in 1998 due to lack of resources and poverty levels within rural areas. Access to healthcare was also limited due to a lack of resources, though some government-funded health centers did exist in larger towns or cities. Despite these challenges, Eritrea had made considerable progress over the past decade towards economic development and political reform.
Eritrea. After a period of disagreement over the border crossing between Eritrea and Ethiopia, fighting in the border area erupted in May. Eritrea claimed that Ethiopian forces attacked Eritrean territory, while Ethiopia claimed that Eritrean troops occupied an area on Ethiopian soil. The conflict escalated in June, when the airport in the capital Asmera was bombed by Ethiopian flights and Eritrean flights carried out bombings against the Ethiopian cities of Meqele and Adigrat. The land battles spread along the border, i.e. to quite close to the port city of Aseb.
According to Countryaah, the capital of Eritrea is Asmara. The conflict between the former allies surprised the outside world but seemed to have several causes. The frontier had never been properly demarcated, and both sides presented conflicting maps of the colonial era in support of their territorial demands. The introduction of a new currency, nakfa, in Eritrea in 1997 had complicated trade exchanges and led to increased demands in Ethiopia to regain Aseb, which was lost by Eritrea’s independence in 1993.
Following mediation of Italy and the United States, the flight stops were canceled on June 15. The ground fighting, too, soon ebbed out after demanding hundreds of deaths. However, a number of international peace initiatives were stranded, mainly due to Eritrea’s refusal to withdraw their troops from the disputed area before peace talks.
While the United States and the African Organization of African Unity (OAU) continued their mediation efforts, the conflict turned into a war of words, with both sides accusing each other of mass deportations under brutal forms of the other country’s citizens. Occasional shooting across the border occurred during the fall, as both sides reinforced their troops in the area.
- Abbreviationfinder: What does ERI stand for in geography? Here, this 3 letter acronym refers to the country of Eritrea.
In the shadow of the conflict with Ethiopia, Eritrea normalized relations with Yemen, after an international arbitration tribunal divided the disputed Hanisharki law in the Red Sea between the two countries and gave Eritrea the right to fish in the Yemeni zone.
In November, Eritrea and Sudan agreed to resolve the inconvenience through negotiations rather than arms power. Their relationship had been strained for many years and both countries have supported the opposition’s armed opposition.
The Eritrean territory includes: the northernmost part of the Ethiopian Plateau with average altitudes of 2000-2400 m; the eastern edge of the plateau itself, which descends with a scarp deeply engraved by torrential furrows towards the E; an arid coastal plain to the North, which opens towards the center in the Gulf of Zula, fronted by the Dahlak Islands; a large part of Danakil ; the western slope of the plateau, which descends gently towards the Sudanese plains. The plateau is deeply engraved by a network of watercourses, which, with narrow and recessed valleys, for the most part flow into the Tekeze and Mereb arteries, both belonging to the Atbara basin; to the North instead the waters go to Anseba and Baraka, gathered near the border of Ethiopia in a single artery that dries up without reaching the Red Sea.
The region has a great variety of climates. The maritime part has a very hot climate, scarce winter rains and to the South (dancala depression) almost absolutely absent. The region of the eastern slopes between 1000 and 1800 m has quite abundant rainfall, mainly in winter; the average temperatures are quite low, with modest annual excursions and considerable diurnal fluctuations. The plateau has similar temperature conditions, but more scarce rains, mainly in summer; the rainfall increases from N to S and decreases as we proceed towards the West.