Costa Rica. In the February presidential election, the Socialist Party of Partido de Unidad Social Cristianias (PUSC) candidate Miguel Angel Rodrígues-Echeverría barely won over the ruling Liberal Party of Liberación Nacionals (PLN) José Miguel Corrales. The incumbent President José María Figueres Olsen (PLN) had sat for a term of office (four years) and thus was unable to run. The newly elected Rodrígues-Echeverría promised in his election campaign to improve the economy and limit inflation. He took office in May.
- Abbreviationfinder: What does CRI stand for in geography? Here, this 3 letter acronym refers to the country of Costa Rica.
After having one of the world’s most extensive logging operations in the 1970s, Costa Rica managed to curb deforestation for the first time during the year. According to the Environment and Energy Agency, new planting was greater than harvesting.
An agreement was reached during the year between the banana workers’ union and the company Del Monte on improved rights and working conditions. This happened after massive international criticism with buying boycotts against Del Monte.
In June, the protracted border dispute around the San Juan River led to a diplomatic crisis between Costa Rica and Nicaragua. According to Countryaah, the capital of Costa Rica is San Jose. Nicaragua considered that Costa Rica was only allowed to use the river for commercial purposes, while the Costa Rican police were also using the river for patrolling to prevent Nicaraguan from entering the country illegally. Later, a settlement was reached that gave the Costa Rican police the right to patrol on the river, but only in the company of Nicaraguan patrol boats. The settlement was met by strong protests in Nicaragua. Costa Rica was hit in October by Hurricane Mitch’s progress but not as extensive as neighboring countries in the north.
History. – President Cortés did not obtain the ratification of a border agreement with Panama (September 1938), rejected Nicaragua’s proposal to discuss the canalization of the Rio San Juan, while North American forces garrisoned the uninhabited Cocos island, about 500 km . from the coast (September-October 1939).
Elected president on February 12, 1940, Rafael Angel Calderón Guardia, who entered office on May 10, supported the United States, criticized Italy’s entry into the war, resisted German attempts at intimidation, declared war on Japan, Germany and to Italy in December 1941, and with the technical and financial help of the United States, he pushed forward the construction of the Pan-American road from S. José to the border with Panama and intensified the cultivation of rubber, abacà, quinine and wood of balsa, thus attempting to compensate for the diminished age of coffee and bananas; he tried to contain the rise in prices, repealed the law prohibiting Chinese immigration and issued a Labor Code (1943) and a Health Code (1944).
On February 13, 1944, Teodoro Picado Michalski (and vice-president Francisco Calderón, brother of Rafael Angel), a government candidate, supported by the Vanguardia popular (communist) party, to which Archbishop Victor Sanabria allowed Catholics to join, was elected president. He entered office – after a trip to the United States – on May 8, while in Mexico City the resumption of relations with the Soviet Union was regulated among the diplomatic representatives in that country; on September 8, the presidents of Costa Rica and Panama met on the new border line to celebrate the agreement reached. In October, Costa Rican troops stopped a group of exiles from Nicaragua who were preparing a revolutionary expedition against President Somora; Central American federation projects, discussed in Guatemala and El Salvador, were not accepted in Costa Rica. Instead, the internal situation worsened, due to the rising cost of living, the scarcity of foodstuffs and the poor state of finances, despite the loans granted by the United Fruit Company and by the Export-Import Bank of the United States and government measures. This still had a majority in the 1946 by-elections, after an attempt (October 1945) to establish the publicity of the vote. But in the presidential elections of February 8, 1948, Calderón, who reappeared, succumbed to the opposition candidate (Unión nacional), Otilio Ulate (Cortés having died on March 3, 1946). The Congress canceled the election and René Picado, Theodore’s brother, refused to transmit the command of the troops he held to the Ulate. On the contrary, Ulate was arrested on 2 March, in the presence of the archbishop and ministers of the United States, Great Britain and Venezuela, on charges of complicity in the killing of two agents sent to arrest him the night before. However, he was released the following day.
But Colonel José Figueras, already a fighter with the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War, sided in favor of the Ulate. Having repeatedly defeated the government troops, the Figueras occupied S. Isidro, about 55 km away. from S. José, and Puerto Limón; on 14 April, on the initiative of the Nuncio, Msgr. L. Centoz, began negotiations, through the representatives of Argentina, Mexico, Panama and the United States, which, after difficult negotiations, and when the Figueras had already virtually besieged the capital, ended with the agreement of the April 20. Picado and Calderón, who had already taken refuge in Guatemala, would have remained in exile; he would be granted an amnesty and given the provisional presidency to León Herrera, who on the 24th established a ministry in which Figueras was the predominant figure. Junta revolucionaria, with the task of preparing a draft constitution to be submitted to the National Assembly, as the elections were called for 8 December 1948.