Chad. Chad and Cameroon agreed in January to begin work on a pipeline from the oil fields in southern Chad to the Cameroonian Atlantic coast. But before oil production can start, political unrest in the south must cease; during the year there were both kidnappings and civil disputes between government forces and rebels.
- Abbreviationfinder: What does TCD stand for in geography? Here, this 3 letter acronym refers to the country of Chad.
|Gross domestic product (GDP)||$ 28,620,000,000|
|GDP growth rate||-3.10%|
|GDP per capita||2,300 USD|
|GDP by sector|
|Proportion of the population below the national poverty line||80%|
|Distribution of household income|
|Top 10%||k. A.|
|Lower 10%||k. A.|
|Industrial production growth rate||-5.00%|
|Investment volume||24.7% of GDP|
|National debt||52.50% of GDP|
|Foreign exchange reserves||$ 74,200,000|
|Number of visitors||122,000|
The territory was, since ancient times, the seat of powerful realms such as those of Kanem (9th century) and Baghirmi (16th century) which, after having undergone a widespread process of Islamization, extended their influence and control over vast neighboring regions of sub-Saharan Central Africa. The slave trade, practiced to the detriment of the native black tribes, constituted (together with the traffic of ivory and ostrich feathers) one of the most sadly profitable activities and was mainly aimed at Egypt and the countries of the East. In the second half of the century. XIX France, which pursued an ambitious plan of colonial expansion in western and equatorial Africa, penetrated the regions of Chad, also drawing inspiration from the conflicts between indigenous potentates and from the aggressive conduct of Rabah Zubair who, after having conquered Baghirmi in 1892, had also invaded the Bornu. After a difficult and not without failures campaign, French troops defeated and killed Rabah on April 22, 1900 in Kousseri. The protectorate agreements concluded starting from 1892 practically ensured France the whole area of Chad, with which the territories of West Africa could thus be united with those of Equatorial Africa. The administrative organization of Chad, which had a military character in the early days, underwent numerous changes in the first decades of the century. XX until it assumed a well-defined structure in 1920 when the country acquired the status of a colony. During the Second World War, after the Franco-German armistice of June 1940, the governor F. Eboué he spoke out for the continuation of the war alongside General De Gaulle and Chad became an important base for the operations of the allied troops. In the meantime, again by F. Eboué, an administrative decentralization and the incorporation of some native institutions into the political-administrative regime of the country were implemented. With the Framework Law of 1956, greater autonomy was also granted to Chad which, following the institutional referendum of 1958, became an autonomous Republic within the Franco-African Community. On 11 August 1960, Prime Minister F. Tombalbaye he proclaimed the country’s full independence within the Community and also became head of state. On November 28, 1960, Chad adopted a constitution, replaced on April 16, 1962 by another that established presidential power and recognized the Progressive Party as a single party. In 1963, however, movements of revolt caused by tax pressure and racial and religious discrimination began in the northern, eastern and northeastern regions, aimed at resolving by force the contradictions between the nomadic and Muslim North and the sedentary and animist South. In 1966 the partisans of the armed struggle founded the Frolinat (National Liberation Front of Chad), directed by Doctor Aba Siddik; Tombalbaye in response requested the intervention of the French army. Numerous members of the Frolinat then rejoined the government (1970). Subsequently, the Frolinat, thanks to the support of Libya and taking advantage of the withdrawal of the French military corps, intensified the guerrilla by occupying in February 1973 Am-Timan.
In March, human rights organizations blamed the government’s security forces for summary executions of civilians in the country’s southwest, and rebels were said to treat the locals barbarously. Seven human rights organizations subsequently got their offices in the capital, N’Djamena, surrounded by police, which forced them to cease their activities.
According to Countryaah, the capital of Chad is N’Djamena. Libyan leader Muammar al-Khadaffi was very active during the year in linking the countries of the Sahara and the Sahel region, among others. Chad, in close cooperation with Libya. In May, the country was visited by al-Khadaffi and the leaders of Niger, Mali and Burkina Faso, all members of the economic cooperation body Comessa. al-Khadaffi’s visit was preceded by opposition protests and violent student demonstrations.
In May, for the second year in a row, the government signed a ceasefire with the FARF guerrillas, the leading rebel movement in the south. The previous agreement did not hold.
One of the opposition MPs was sentenced in July to three years in prison and fined since he made bribery charges against the President of Parliament.
In September, the government sent at least 1,000 soldiers to Congo (Kinshasa) to participate on the government side in the civil war. The Chadians suffered severe defeats, and according to the rebels, about 200 Chadian soldiers were killed and many were taken prisoner. The Chadian opposition called on the government to take home the remaining troops.
Deadly violence between nomads and peasants
More than 20 people are killed when nomadic cattle once again clash with farmers in southern Chad. The death toll is about the same on both sides. Several villages are set on fire. About 70 people were arrested by the police in connection with the violence. The reason for the outbreak of violence is cattle theft and the fact that the nomadic herds of cattle trample the farmers’ farms.
Twelve newspapers are closed
The authorities close twelve newspapers, five French-speaking and seven Arabic-speaking, for three months because they violate a law from 2018 that says publishers and editors-in-chief must have at least three years of college education and education in journalism. If the newspapers do not remedy these shortcomings within three months, “tougher sanctions” await.