The stretches between the Mediterranean coast and the Pyrenees Spanish Autonomous Community of Catalonia. It is located in the northeastern part of Spain. There are several official languages here. Next to Catalan and Spanish is also spoken here in Aranese. Catalonia is also known as one of the “historical autonomous communities”. This is mainly due to the historical and cultural past of the region.
The landscape of Catalonia
The direct neighbors of Catalonia are France, Andorra, Aragon and Valencia. Important cities include Barcelona, Tarragona, Lleida and Girona.
Many vacationers know the rocky but impressively beautiful Costa Brava from their vacation stays. But not only this coastal area is mandatory on a trip in Catalonia, there are also many dreamy and small bays on long sandy beaches.
There are also some nature reserves in Catalonia. One of the most famous is the Aiguestortes i Estany de Sant Maurici National Park in the Pyrenees. The Garrotxa Volcanoes Nature Reserve and the Ebro Nature Park also protect very special landscapes, flora and fauna. The history of Catalonia The Iberians were the first to colonize the territory of Catalonia. Carthage subsequently ruled the coastal region. At the end of the 3rd century BC Christ invaded the Romans to power. This was also the case for many centuries. In the 1st century, Catalonia became a Roman province and was part of Hispania Tarraconensis. Even then, predominantly Christians lived in Catalonia. Then at 418 the Visigoths stepped
in the footsteps of the Romans. They did not take control, but acted as a kind of police for Spain. It was not until 507, after the Battle of Vouillé, that the Visigoths took control, which had a strong influence on the Catalonian region. The Gothic legal code remained in place until the 11th century.
Various counties have formed in the Catalonian region over the past centuries. These gradually became more independent and even completely independent.
In the 12th century, the Counts of Barcelona formed a state community, which was named “Crown of Aragon” went down in the history books. In the following years, in the High and Late Middle Ages, it developed into a leading power in the western Mediterranean region. The commercial and economic center of this empire was in the Catalan region.
During the so-called Second Republic, Catalonia was initially granted its autonomy in 1931 with the re-establishment of the generals. The autonomy was suspended between 1934 and 1936 and finally abolished in 1939 after Francisco Franco’s victory in the Spanish Civil War.
After Franco’s death, the region of Catalonia was provisionally regained its autonomy in 1977. Just two years later this was expanded and established.
Culture in Catalonia
Many famous artists come from the area of Catalonia. Some artists who were also important for our general contemporary history were, among others, Salvador Dali, Antoni Gaudi, Joan Mirò and Joan Brossa. Musicians from the region are Josep Carreras, Pau Casalas, Jordi Savall and Maria del Mar Bonet.
In 2007, Catalonia hosted the International Book Fair. In general, the region attaches great importance to education and cultural commitment. Catalonia has a good school system and a number of important universities with high-ranking graduates. In this way, Catalonia will continue to exist as a commercial and economic center in the future.
Catalonia is an autonomous community in the Kingdom of Spain and is located in the northeast of the country between the Mediterranean coast and the Pyrenees. The region borders in the north with the Pyrenees on France and Andorra, in the west on the Aragón region, in the south on the Comunitat Valencia and in the east the Mediterranean forms the natural border of Catalonia. The total area of Catalonia is about 32,090 square kilometers. The capital of the region is Barcelona.
Catalonia is characterized by a diverse and varied landscape, which is only the case in a few regions of Spain. In the north they dominate Pyrenees, which stretch for about 230 kilometers along the northern border with France. At 3,143 meters, the Pica d’Estats is the highest mountain in Catalonia and a total of six peaks of this mountain range exceed the 3,000-meter limit. The Pyrenees gradually flatten out towards the east and finally run out towards the Mediterranean. In addition to the Pyrenees, other mountains run through the country, of which Serra del Cadi and Serra del Moixero are the most important. The hinterland of Catalonia is characterized by the mountain ranges of Montseny, Prades, Montserrat and Els Ports.
Several rivers have their source in the various mountains, all with one exception flowing into the Mediterranean. From the Pyrenees come the Noguera Ribagorcana and the Noguera Pallaresa, which flow first into the Riu Segre and then into the Ebro, the second longest river in Spain. The Ebro finally flows into the Mediterranean in a wide delta in the south of Catalonia. The Riu Garona is the only river in Catalonia that flows into the Atlantic Ocean.
The entire coast of Catalonia is about 580 kilometers and can be geographically divided into three large areas. The coast in the north is mostly rugged, but has some sandy beaches and many small rocky bays. This area is called Costa Brava, the “Wild Coast” and extends over the entire province of Girona. Between the Costa Brava and Barcelona, the coast has long, sometimes very narrow sandy beaches, where the sea drops deeply in some places. The coastal zone running from Barcelona to the Ebro Delta, on the other hand, has many beautiful sandy beaches and dune landscapes. The water in this section is also relatively shallow. This stretch of coast, which is heavily influenced by tourism, is called the Costa Dorada, the “Golden Coast”.