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Romania

Yearbook 1998

Romania. At the beginning of the year, the Social Democrats demanded the departure of Christian Democratic Prime Minister Victor Ciorbea because of his inability to push through the necessary reforms. According to Countryaah, the resignation happened a few months later, and the political crisis got its solution with Radu Vasile as new prime minister, just like his predecessor a conservative Christian Democrat. The new center government consists of four parties that formed a coalition, on the order of Christian Democrats (Partidul Naţional Ţărănesc Creştin-Demokrat din Romānia), Social Democrats (Partidul Social Democrat Traditional Din Romānia), Liberals (Partidul Naţional Liberal), and representatives of the Hungarian minority. Democrată Maghiară din Romānia). Despite the need for a bold reform policy, reform-minded Finance Minister Daniel Dăianu was dismissed and replaced by the more cautious Traian Decebal Remes. A former finance minister, George Danielescu, was charged with falsification of forgery and embezzlement.

Industry privatization and modernization have barely started. Romania has a low standard of living compared to other ex-communist countries with about SEK 800 as average monthly income. The year was marked by worries in the labor market with strikes in health care, and due to missing wages, miners and steel workers also striked and demonstrated. Confidence in the political system is low. found that several mayoral elections were annulled due to too low turnout. The institutions the Romanians have the greatest confidence in are the Orthodox Church and the army. The Hungarian minority's claim to its own university had a surprising result. Parliament decided to set up a university for Hungarians and Germans. However, the German minority had never demanded a higher education seat.

1998 Romania

1948 People's Republic

In 1948, the Communists and some Social Democrats formed the Romania Labor Party. Together with the Farmer Front and the Union of Hungarian people, they formed the Popular Democratic Front. At the election that spring, the front got 405 out of the National Assembly's 414 seats. In April, Parliament proclaimed the formation of the People's Republic of Romania and adopted a socialist constitution. In June, the government introduced central planning of the economy. A comprehensive educational program was launched to reduce illiteracy; The health system was expanded, and a collectivization of the land was initiated - partly under opposition from the peasants.

In 1948-49, Bucharest signed friendship and cooperation agreements with the Eastern Bloc led by the Soviet Union and was incorporated into COMECON. In 55, the country entered the Warsaw Pact. The Soviet Union had significant economic and political influence in the country, and it has long been one of the most Soviet faiths in Eastern Europe.

In 51, the first five-year plan was launched, which was mainly aimed at expanding the production of steel, coal and oil. From 1952, the regime was consolidated under the leadership of President Groza and Prime Minister Gheorghiu-Dej.

In 61, Gheorge Maurer was named Prime Minister and Gheorghiu-Dej became President Gradually, it became clear that Romania opposed economic subordination as a commodity producer within a "socialist division of labor" based on supranational COMECON decisions. Romanian policy aimed at a versatile development of the economy under national leadership. In 62 a number of reforms were initiated. Among other things. the collectivization of agriculture was abolished. At the same time, Romania expanded its economic cooperation with Western and neutral countries in trade, credit and technological cooperation. In foreign policy, the country developed a more independent line and failed, among other things. to take a position in the Soviet-Chinese conflict in the early 1960s.

1965 Nicolae Ceaucescu to power

When party leader and President Gheorghiu-Dej died in 65, Nicolae Ceaucescu was appointed Labor Party's first secretary. In July, it changed its name to the Communist Party of Romania and decided to change the constitution. That same year, the parliament decided to change the country's name to the Socialist Republic of Romania, and in 67 Ceaucescu was appointed head of the Council of State.

Ceaucescu maintained the diplomatic distance to the Soviet Union and declared in 66 that the country continued the struggle for independence. Unlike the other members of the Warsaw Pact, Romania established diplomatic relations with West Germany, it did not break relations with Israel despite the June war in 67, and declined in 68 to participate in the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia. Throughout the 1970s, Ceaucescu maintained the country's independence from the Soviet Union and changed the structure of the party and regime on several occasions - without changing its communist basis. Throughout the 70s and early 80s, he was repeatedly re-elected as the party's secretary general and the country's president. Despite repeated transformations by the government, the country's structural economic problems were getting worse and this was compounded by the administrative corruption, which increased the dissatisfaction of the population. In 1977, the miners in the traditionally revolutionary Jiu Valley carried out a series of major strikes. They finally upheld their claim and, among other things, the Minister of Mines had to step down.

From 1987, the difficult living and working conditions led to an increasing number of demonstrations and strikes that were turned down by the security forces. In 1988-89, several major scandals were revealed in the state administration, which ended up bringing more ministers and senior officials to trial.

With Gorbachov's implementation of perestroika in the Soviet Union and the growing crisis in Eastern Europe, Ceaucescu's prestige abroad also diminished. At the end of 89, clashes between the civilians and the military in the northern city of Timisoara cost dozens of lives. Meanwhile, the foreign press talked about hundreds of people killed, and this news had a profound domestic political effect.

 

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