Libya. The year was marked by discussions about the plans
for a lawsuit against two Libyans suspected to be behind the
explosion of a US passenger plane over the Scottish village
of Lockerbie in 1988, when 270 people were killed. In
August, the United States and Britain proposed that the
trial be held on neutral ground in the Netherlands under
Scottish law. Libyan leader Muammar al-Khadaffi first
announced his acceptance of the proposal, but soon demands
were made, among other things. that the suspects, if
convicted, should not be served their sentences in British
prison but in Dutch or Libyan.
In December, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan traveled to
Libya to try to resolve the conflict, and later that month,
Libya's parliament approved the US and UK proposals.
However, when the suspects were extradited remained unclear,
and the United States and the United Kingdom warned that
sanctions against the country could be tightened unless they
were both extradited by February 1999.
Countryaah, many judges said al-Khadaffi was worried that prosecutors
would try to use the trial to convict the state of Libya for
the attack. The suspects are two Libyan Arab Airways
employees who, according to the United States and the United
Kingdom, worked as intelligence agents. Since being arrested
in Libya in 1991, they have been in freedom but without a
passport. They are suspended from work but have full pay.
The flight ban imposed on Libya in 1992 after the country
refused to extradite the two suspects was eroded during the
year. In June, the African Unity Organization (Organization
of African Unity) decided to no longer respect the ban, and
in September a number of African heads of state flew to the
country to celebrate the anniversary of al-Khadaffi's
takeover. The Arab League, on the other hand, did nothing to
defy the sanctions, which upset al-Khadaffi.
In September, a trial began in which a number of US
military and politicians in their absence were held
responsible for the attacks against Libya in 1986. The trial
was updated in March 1999.
In May, the EU signed an agreement with Libya to limit
the flow of refugees from Africa through Libya to Europe. A
similar agreement under Gaddafi had meant that not many
refugees came through Libya. However, the agreement with
Libya did not have a greater impact on the massive refugee
flow. Libya only had a few patrol boats, and inland the
various militia groups were most concerned with fighting
each other. The humanitarian refugee disaster in the
Mediterranean therefore continued throughout 2013 and 14.
At the beginning of June, clashes broke out in Benghazi
between protesters, the army and militias. At least 31 were
killed and over 100 injured - most civilians. A week later,
hundreds of armed militiamen stormed several military
facilities in the city - including on the 1st Infantry
Brigade and a few days later a huge explosion leveled the
police station in Al-Hadayeq district with the ground.
In October, Defense Minister Ali Zeidan was kidnapped and
held captive for hours in what was subsequently referred to
as a coup attempt. The month after, the Misrata militia
attacked Tripoli, after an imam called for the dissolution
of all militias. At least 45 were killed during the first
day of fighting. In Benghazi, fierce fighting came between
the elite forces of the army and the Ansar al-Sharia
militia, which had several bases in the city.
The Islamic-controlled National Congress introduced
Sharia law in Libya in December.
2014 Civil war in a clan-divided country
In January 2014, Libyans attacked several targets in
southern Libya after Gaddafi loyalists stormed and occupied
the Tamahind airbase near the city of Sabha. The government
then put the country into emergency.
The conflict in the country escalated dramatically when
the parliament building in May was stormed and taken by
militia loyal to General Khalifa Haftar - including the
Zintan Brigade. Haftar's forces had attacked Islamic
militias in Benghazi a few days before. Under the chaotic
conditions, in June, an attempt was made to hold a
parliamentary election, which allegedly became an obvious
defeat for the various Islamic parties. These reacted in
July by launching an offensive against Tripoli Airport,
which was taken in August after 41 days of fighting. That
same month, Islamic parliamentarians who had not been
elected to the new parliament rallied and declared this
aloof. In November, the Supreme Court, which was under the
control of the Islamists, dissolved the newly elected
parliament. The newly elected parliament had then gone into
exile in Tobruk in the eastern part of the country near the
border with Egypt.
Algeria closed its borders with Libya and evacuated its
embassy staff in Tripoli. French special forces evacuated
the French embassy in July, and the British were evacuated
in early August.
In November, a Tuareg militia took control of the El
Sharara oil field in the southwestern part of the country.
In December, the Misrata militia launched an offensive to
gain control of Ras Lanuf and the Sidra oil terminal on the
Mediterranean. During the fighting, both sides of the
conflict carried out air strikes.
In January 2015, a ceasefire was entered into between the
Islamic militias and militias under Khalifa Haftar's
control. They agreed to form a unifying government and
conduct new political negotiations. The country was then
almost cut off from the outside world. Tripoli airport was
destroyed after the fighting and as the last airline,
Turkish Airlines canceled its flight to Banghazi in early
January. For Turkey, there was a huge loss of prestige, as
the country had played a prominent role in overturning
Gaddafi in 2011. The Danish bombers had long since been sent
on to create a similar chaos in Syria.