Ireland. According to
Countryaah, growth in the Irish economy continues steeply
and has been the highest in Europe for some years, this year
around 10%. The "Celtic tiger", which I. received as a
nickname during the good economic years, has not yet met the
same fate as the Asian so-called tiger economies, which in
1997 were hit by major economic problems. A slight slowdown
in the economy was noticed at the end of the year, but
unemployment is still expected to continue to decline. gave
tax exemption to the lowest income level in the country.
Many new jobs are created by foreign companies,
especially in the IT industry, continuing to establish
themselves in Ireland, attracted by the favorable tax conditions.
The availability of work is so good that immigration is now
greater than emigration. Most are Irish who return home
after previously being forced to emigrate to find
employment, but a growing stream of young French, Germans
and Swedes are now finding work in the Irish IT companies.
The successful peace process in Northern Ireland helped
to strengthen the faith of the future in Ireland. In the May 22
referendum, 95% of voters in the country voted yes to the
new peace agreement, which is comparable to 71% yes votes in
Northern Ireland who voted on the same day. Through this
election the Irish made up their past and approved, among
other things. that the country gives up its constitutional
claims on Northern Ireland.
On the same day, in a parallel referendum, 62% of Irish
people also agreed to the Amsterdam Treaty, which the EU
leaders signed in June 1997. The result was surprisingly low
in the EU-friendly I. - which can partly thank the EU's
regional funds for the economic upswing in recent years -
but the vote came entirely in the shadow of the historic
referendum on the Northern Ireland peace treaty.
A new phase in relations with Britain began when the
30-year conflict in the Northern Province ended. On November
11, on the 80th anniversary of the end of the First World
War, the 50,000 Irish soldiers who fell in the war were
honored for the first time. The Irish who fought on the
British side were seen as traitors to many countrymen, and
many were murdered when they returned home after the end of
Britain's Prime Minister Tony Blair was shortly
thereafter invited to speak in the Irish Parliament and thus
became the first British head of government to speak in the
I Parliament. Queen Elizabeth's husband Prince Philip also
visited Dublin and was welcomed by President Mary McAleese.
The Prince is the highest British royal who has visited
Dublin since the newly crowned Georg V and Queen Mary came
on official visit in 1911 when I. still belonged to Britain.
Ireland - Dublin
Dublin, Irish Dubh Linn, also Baile Átha Cliath, Republic
of Ireland's capital and largest city, located on the east coast of the island
at the mouth of the River Liffey in the Bay of Dublin; 553,200 residents (2016).
Dublin is the country's economic, political and cultural center and has its most
important port. From the port Dún Laoghaire there is a ferry connection to
Holyhead in the UK, and Dublin is the central point of the country's rail
network. Collinstown Airport is located north of the city. Dublin has Ireland's
largest private employer, the Guinness brewery, and the textile, food, tobacco,
glass and machinery industries are also important. Nowadays, however, service
and trade are the most important industries. Several international companies
have factories in Dublin.
The buildings in the central parts of Dublin are predominantly from the 18th
and 19th centuries. Prominent in the cityscape are the two neoclassical
buildings Custom House (1781–91) and Four Courts (1786–1802) by James Gandon.
Among the city's older churches are mainly Christ Church Cathedral and Saint
Patrick's Cathedral, both from the 1100s. In the 1960s and 1970s, older houses
were given space for large office buildings in the central parts.
Education and culture
Dublin has two renowned educational institutions, Trinity College (founded in
1591 by Queen Elizabeth I) and University College (founded in 1909). Trinity
College is the University of Dublin alone, while University College is part of
the National University of Ireland.
Trinity College houses Dublin's largest library, Trinity College Library,
with about 2. 5 million bands and 10,000 manuscripts, including many famous
items of medieval Irish book painting. Foremost among the magnificent book
treasures are "Book of Kells", a gospel from about 800, "Book of Armagh",
containing the New Testament, etc. (about 807) and gospels "Book of Durrow"
(about 680), "Book of Fog" and "Book of Mulling" (both from the late 700's).
Another significant library in Dublin is the Chester Beatty Library, created by
Sir Chester Beatty ( 1875-1968 ), who willed his collections of mainly Oriental
manuscripts to the people of Ireland. They also contain Babylonian clay tablets
from the 21st century BC. and Bible Papers from the 100s-300s AD
Among the city's theaters, Abbey Theater, inaugurated in 1904 by William
Butler Yeats and Augusta Gregory, is marked as the Irish national scene. Many
famous dramatists have worked here, for example. Yeats, John Millington Synge
and Sean O'Casey.
Dublin is the birthplace of several great literary figures, who have also
occasionally worked there. Most notable are Richard Brinsley Sheridan, Oscar
Wilde, George Bernard Shaw and James Joyce.
In 1991, Dublin was named the European Capital of Culture.
Dublin, which belongs to Ireland's oldest cities, dates back to the year 841,
when the Nordic Vikings settled here and built a harbor, probably near
Kilmainham – Islandbridge, west of the present center, where a large burial
ground from the 8th century was found. Around Christ Church Cathedral, the
settlement dates back to the beginning of the 9th century according to the
results of the large excavations that have been carried out since the 1960s. The
city was the seat of the most powerful Nordic kings in Ireland. The Norwegians
remained the leading population element in Dublin until the English conquest of
In order to consolidate his control over Eastern Ireland, the English built
Dublin Castle in the early 13th century, for more than 700 years the
symbol of England's dominion over Ireland. Elizabeth I founded a university,
Trinity College, in the city in 1591. During the Civil War in England, Dublin's
population stood on the king's side, but in 1649 surrendered the city without
resistance to Cromwell's army. Dublin expanded during the 18th century and
became the second largest city of the British Empire in London. The union
between Ireland and the United Kingdom in 1801, when the Irish Parliament was
dissolved in Dublin, began a prolonged period of decline. When potato plague
paralyzed the island in the mid-19th century, Dublin was slumped due to mass
influx of starving peasants. Towards the end of the 19th century Dublin became
the center of Irish nationalist currents, culminating in the 1916 Easter
uprising against the British. In 1922, the Irish Free State became the dominion
of the British Commonwealth,Dáil Éireann, the Irish Parliament.